Temple of Artemis was built repeatedly. But early wooden buildings came into the decrepitude, burnt or [gibli] from the frequent here earthquakes and therefore in the middle VI of century to our era it was decided to construct, without stinting on means and time, splendid dwelling for the goddess- patroness.
In the architects, the artists and the sculptors there was no deficiency. Best was acknowledged the project of famous [Khersifrona]. That proposed to build temple from the marble, moreover on the rare then to the principle of ionic [diptera], i.e., to surround by its two numbers of marble columns.
The sad experience of previous building in the sword hilt made it necessary to think the architect above the fact how to ensure to temple long life. The solution was daring and nonstandard: to place temple on the swamp in river. [Khersifron] judged, that the soft marshy soil will serve as shock absorber with the future earthquakes. But so that under its gravity marble colossus would not be immersed into the earth, was dug out the deep foundation area, which they filled with the mixture of charcoal and fur - by pillow with thickness into several meters. This pillow actually justified the hopes of architect and ensured longevity to temple. True, not this but, etc…
Obviously, the building of the temple Of [artemidy] of Ephesian was continuous engineering puzzle, about which there are information in the antique sources. To say nothing of the calculations, which it was necessary to conduct in order to be confident in so [neortodoksalnom] a foundation, it would be BE necessary to solve, for example, the problem of delivery on the swamp of the columns weighing several tons. What vehicles builders did not construct, they inexorably connected under the gravity of load. [Khersifron] found the brilliantly simple solution. In the ends it is trunk columns they drove into the iron cores, and on them put on wooden bushings, from which dispatch to the bulls of shaft. Columns became rollers, wheels obediently went for a drive after the harnesses of tens of pairs of bulls.
When great [Khersifron] itself proved to be powerless, to the aid to it came [Artemida]: it was interested face. In spite of all effort, [Khersifron] it could not pack in the place the rock beam of threshold. The nerves of architect after several years of labor, fight with the unconscientious contractors, the fathers of city, the crowds of tourists and envious associates were on the limit. It solved, what this beam - last drop, and it began to be prepared for the suicide. For [artemide] it was necessary to take the urgent measures: In the morning to the locked in “[prorabskoy]” architect came running townspeople with the cries, that within the night the beam independently descended into the necessary grooves.
[Khersifron] did not live until the completion of temple. After its premature death of the function of chief architect they switched over to his son [Metagenu], and when and that passed away, the temple Of [artemidy] they finished building It [peonit] and [Demetriy]. Temple was finished approximately in 450 to our era.
As it was decorated, what stood in it statues and what were there frescoes and pictures, as appeared very statue Of [artemidy], we do not know. And it is better not to believe to those authors, who in detail describe the decoration of temple, its carved columns, created by remarkable sculptor [Skopas], the statue Of [artemidy] and so on. This to the described temple does not have a relation. Everything, that made [Khersifron] and its successors, disappeared because of [Gerostrata].
History Of [gerostrata], perhaps, one of the instructive parables in the history of our planet. Man, by anything remarkable, decides to attain immortality, after committing the crime, to the equal to which accomplished still no one. Specifically, for the glory, for the immortality it burns the temple Of [artemidy], which stood less than hundred years. This happened in 356 to our era. By the way, precisely, during the day, when Alexander [Makedonskiy] was born.
The wooden parts of the temple, dried up by the sun, the reserves of grain, fallen down in his basements, offering, picture and the clothing of priests - all this proved to be outstanding food for the fire. The floor beams burst themselves with the crack, they fell, being cleft, column - temple ceased to exist.
And here before compatriots Of [gerostrata] arises the problem: what terrible execution to devise to scoundrel so that not in whom more it would appear a similar idea? Possibly, if [efestsy] were not gifted with rich fantasy, if it did not prove to be there philosophers and poets, who broke to themselves the head above this problem and who perceived responsibility before the future generations, they would execute [Gerostrata], and the case is closed. Still several years the average men would speak: “There was one madman, burnt our excellent temple… only as it they called, give the god of memory…” And we would forget [Gerostrata].
But [efestsy] decided to put an end to the claims Of [gerostrata] by one impact and completed tragic error. They decreed to forget [Gerostrata]. Not to mention its name nowhere and never - to punish by the oblivion of person, who dreamed about the immortal fame. Gods laughed above wise [efestsami]. Ioniums, in [Ellade], in Egypt, in [Persii] - everywhere the people told on the entire: “A you do know what surprising execution they did devise in the sword hilt to this incendiary? Now forever they will forget it. No one will know its name. But by the way, as it they did call? [Gerostrat]? Yes, this [Gerostrata] we will compulsorily forget”.
And, it goes without saying, they did not forget…
But the temple of [efestsy] they decided to construct again. The second temple built architect [Kheyrokrat], famous inventor, to whom is assigned the planning of alexandria, model city of hellenic peace, and the idea to convert [Afaya] mountain into Alexander [Makedonskiy]'s statue with the vessel in the hand, from which issues itself the river.
True, this time building engaged a few years. And merit in that is long ago narrower than dead [Khersifrona]. Now there were no riddles and technical inventions. Way was beaten. One ought to have only repeated that made earlier. So they entered. True, on the even larger scales, than before. New temple reached 109 meters in the length, 50- into the width. 127 [dvadtsatimetrovykh] columns surrounded it in two rows, moreover the part of the columns they were carved and bas reliefs on them carried out famous sculptor [Skopas].
This temple was acknowledged as the miracle of light, although perhaps more than bases to this title had the first, built [Khersifonom].
“After certain [Gerostrat] it burnt temple, the citizens of [vozdvigli] of another, more beautiful, after gathering for this female adornments, after endowing his own property and selling the columns of previous temple”, it writes [Strabon].
Inside the temple Of [artemidy] was decorated with the remarkable statues of the work Of [praksitelya] and [Skopasa], but the pictures of this temple were even more splendid.
In our imagination Greek antique skill - this first of all sculpture, then architecture. But, with exception of several frescoes, we barely know here Greek painting. But painting existed, it was widely disseminated, she highly valued by contemporaries and, if we believe to the opinions of the judges, whom in any way cannot be suspected in the ignorance, it often exceeded sculpture. Is possible to assume that painting Of [ellady] and ionium, not reached to the present, one of the largest and most bitter losses, which it was necessary to carry for world skill.
In the temple was located the portrait of Alexander [Makedonskiy] (artist Of [apelles]), in the form general with the lightning in the hand, similar to Zeus. There in the temple was located the picture, on which the Odyssy in the fit of folly harnessed ox with the horse, pictures, which depicted men, submerged in the meditation, the soldier, who packs his sword into the scabbards, and other fabrics…
The calculations of architects, who constructed temple on the swamp, proved to be precise. Temple stood another half of millenium. Romans highly valued by its and rich gifts contributed to its glory and wealth. It is known that [Vibiy] Of [salyutariy] it presented to the temple, more known in the Roman empire by the name of the temple of Dianas, there are many gold and silver statues, which in the days large holidays carried into the theater for the universal review.
The glory of temple in many respects served as the reason for its loss in the times of early Christianity. Sword hilt for long remained the stronghold of the heathens: [Artemida] did not desire to be inferior glory and wealth to new god. They indicate that [efestsy] banished from their city of apostle Pavel and his supporters. Such transgressions could not remain unpunished. New god sent for sword hilt it was prepared, that ransacked the sanctuary Of [artemidy] in 263. Become stronger Christianity continued to hate the become deserted temple. Preachers raised the crowds of fanatics against this personification of the past, but temple still stood.
When sword hilt fell under the authority of Christian Byzantium, began the following stage of its loss. They began to pull apart marble revetment from it for the different buildings, was dismantled roof, the unity of construction is disrupted. And when began to fall columns, then their fragments it sucked in by the same swamp, which saved temple from the loss earlier. But even through several decades under the wash and the deposits of river were hidden the last tracks of the best temple ioniums. Even place, where it stood, gradually it was forgotten.
Long months were required English archaeologist to Wood in order to find the tracks of temple. On October 31, 1869 to it transported. Completely the foundation of temple was revealed only in our century. But under it - the tracks of the temple, burnt [Gerostratom].
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