Egyptian pyramids - one of 7 old miracles of light. Texts and figures inside the pyramids praised the godly might of pharaoh, and the powerful walls of pyramid reliably protected the burial of tsar. Egyptian pyramids - these are the architectural monuments of ancient Egypt.
Only from “seven miracles of light”, that reached to the present, appear precisely pyramids. Ancient Egyptian architecture even during our days strikes with the power of its huge rock construction. Among the enormous columns of the ancient temples, [vzdymayushchikhsya] to the sky and which stand frequently as trees in the forest, it is possible to stray. At the entrance into these temples as terrible of guard, cost enormous statues pharaoh's, rock sphinxes lie. Sphinx - in ancient Egypt - the embodiment of tsarist authority, the statue, which depicts fantastic essence with the body of lion and the head of man or sacred animal.
By many are interesting Egyptian pyramids, in particular the pyramid of Cheops. About 5 thousand years ago in the valley with the lower flow of the Nile appeared the first small slaveholding states. At the end IV of millenium B.C. rulers of one of them subordinated to themselves entire country, after creating common reign with the center in the city Memphis, which was being located on the left shore of the Nile, south of that place, where Cairo city is now located. About 2800 g. B.C. the ruler of this state became pharaoh [Khuf]. Subsequently its name Greek historians altered in Cheops. So is called it, also, in our time. In the hands pharaoh's were concentrated enormous riches and unlimited authority.
Grandfather and father of Cheops spent their riches not only on the court luxury and majestic tombs - pyramids, which had to immortalize the names of terrible rulers. Their slaves erected weirs, broke through channels, were arranged sluices in order to evenly distribute waters of the Nile for the irrigation pour on. Therefore [s] pour on Egypt they were removed high harvests, which brought new and new incomes to pharaohs.
However, Cheops thought only about glorifying of himself. Flattering and sly priests told it: “Terrestrial life is short. The houses, in which we live, this of hotel. The authentic dwelling of man - tomb, the house of the eternity, where it will dwell millions years. If you want to be immortal, care about your tomb”. And Cheops decided to reduce as far as possible state expenditures, and the large part of his incomes to spend on the creation of tomb, which will be above and it is more majestic all previous tsarist tombs.
Strange slaves were not sufficient, and on the works they began to assign Egyptians - farmers. Pharaoh ordered to select for the work of the strong and most hardy. Each farmer had to work out on the building of the pyramid of 4 months. In the capital Memphis according to Greek historian Herodotus, who lived in V v. B.C., they drove off to 100 thousand people. They fed with their dry flat cakes, dried fish, garlic and horseradish. Many died, but for the change by it they chased newer and newer…
The first decade left to the preparatory works. Laid convenient way to the place of building, selected on the West Bank of the Nile (near the suburb of the modern city of Cairo - [Giza]), they dug underground hiding-places was embedded foundation. But in the stone quarries, approximately in 600 miles to the east from the Nile, split off the chunks of limestone and transported them to the West Bank. After this, 20 years was built gigantic rock pyramid. Its building was completed on 31- m to the year of the administration of tsar.
2 mln. 300 thousand rock chunks with the weight of 2,5 tons each were smooth [obtesany] by the copper instruments (there were no iron instruments at that time yet) and are tightly fitted to each other. The height of pyramid was 280 elbows (about 147 m), i.e. it approximately reached the height of contemporary forty-storied house. The side of the base of pyramid reaches 230 meters. It occupies more area how 9 football pour on. The [obtesannye] plates were packed with such perfection, that into the seam between them it is not possible to push through even needle. The entrance into the pyramid was located on the northern side. Narrow corridor conducted through the large gallery into the funeral camera (10[kh]5[kh]5 m.), in which was established tsarist coffin - sarcophagus. Unfortunately, it was not preserved until our time, but they assume that it was carved from the stone. Lateral corridor conducted into the tomb of tsarina.
Cheops attained his goal, although the working people grumbled and even slaveholding to know was dissatisfied by the excessive expenditures, which wasted the country.
After death of tsar loyal servants carried out everything which was prescribed by ancient customs. They revealed the corpse of tsar, extracted the brain and interior, held the body of 70 days in salt water, they flooded with fragrant resin and they wrapped up finished mummy by funeral shrouds. Egyptians believed that the revival of corpses is possible. They considered that the soul of dead person, as long as remains his body, it can in it return. In the mummy first converted only the bodies of tsars, and subsequently also all notable slaveholders. Around the pyramid of pharaoh were arranged the tombs grandee officials. The owners of rich estates and luxurious houses wanted also after death to differ from simple people. However, simply they wrapped paupers in the mat and buried.
Sarcophagus with the mummy of tsar they placed on the enormous sleds, harnessed bulls and chased them to the West, where, on the study of priests, the entrance into the other world peace was located. Mourners and mourners proclaimed air by wild howls. Priests stabbed into the victim the shower of the dead person of bulls and geese. They placed tsarist mummy inside the pyramid and they immured the entrance into the tomb.
During one of the uprisings, details of which to us are unknown, mummy was rejected from the tomb and without leaving a trace it disappeared.
From the sovereign, who constructed to itself the most great pyramid, which in the antiquity they added to “seven to miracles of light”, did not remain and track, but the immense building, created by Egyptian people with this labor and sufferings, already fifth millenium stands and little it varied with time. Only cracked external revetment was broken off and plundered for the new buildings, so that pyramid was lowered on 9 m.
In 1953. two Egyptian archaeologists dug up among the sands not far off from the pyramid the hiding-place at the depth of 17 m, overlapped by rock blocks. Inside proved to be the enormous wooden boat of pharaoh in 35 m length with two rows of oars. Egyptian priests prepared this boat so that the kingly deceased it could float in it after death on the celestial waves into the distant reign of corpses.
For the following year another Egyptian archaeologist found in the sands new pyramid - pharaoh [Khesemkheta], who lived in one hundred years to Cheops. Pyramid was, fortunately untouched! Not one robber in it penetrated. The alabaster coffin, which was very well preserved, was located in the internal camera, but, to the disappointment of scientist, it proved to be empty. In ancient Egyptians there was a custom to build the false tombs ([kenotafy]). They assume that the empty coffin was spare, in the case, if the soul of dead person wants to leave a constant tomb and to be moved into other.
Ancient Egyptians believed in the other world life. Priests suggested to people, that also after death the pharaoh will remain lord and the crowds of servants will work on it. Egyptian religion taught that the paupers and slaves have no hope for happy life even in the other world peace. Only pharaohs and grandees will be in bliss after death just as with the life. In the other world peace, according to the idea of Egyptians, there is the same inequality, as on the earth: some work, and others use authority and wealth.
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