the Galikarnassky mausoleum, a photo of the Galikarnassky mausoleum
Семь чудес света

Семь чудес света

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Mausoleum of Halicarnassus

Mausoleum of Halicarnassus was the contemporary of the second temple Of [artemidy]. Moreover, the same masters participated in the building and their adornment. Best masters of that time. Formally speaking, this mausoleum also the monument of love as babylonian gardens. But if [midiyskaya] tsarevna hardly could bring harm to humanity, even if she wanted, and it is more pleasant by all to think that it was dear, good and it was worthy this monument, then with respect to [Mavsola] have long since appeared heavy suspicions. [Prosper] To [merime], speaking about [Galikarnase], to the capital Of [karii], glorious city, the famous fact that Herodotus there was born, he wrote: “[Mavsol] knew how to squeeze out juices of the subject to it peoples, and not one pastor of people, being expressed by the language of Homer, did not know how to more smoothly cut its herd. In its possessions it extracted incomes from in all: even to the burial it established special tax… It introduced tax to the hair. It accumulated enormous riches. By these riches and by constant relations of [kariytsev] with the Greeks it is explained, why the tomb Of [mavsola] was added by the latter to seven miracles of light”.

Mausoleum of Halicarnassus

But in [Karii] there was nevertheless one person, who loved tsar, his sister and wife (frequent custom - also it was in ancient Egypt) Of [artemissiya], and when [protsarstvovav] twenty four years, [Mavsol] died, [Artemissiya] it was killed gorem (advance repair train, adreptrain).

“They indicate that [Artemissiya] fed to its husband the unusual love, wrote Aulus Gellius, love, which is not yielded to description, love unprecedented in the chronicles of peace… When it died, [Artemissiya], embracing corpse and spilling above it tears, it ordered to transfer it with the improbable solemnity into the tomb, where it was burnt. In the impulse of the most great misfortune Of [artemissiya] it ordered then to mix ashes with the fragrancies and to crush into the powder, this powder then poured out into the cup with the water and drank. Furthermore, its ardent love for the deceased was expressed still otherwise. Considering not what expenses, it [vozdvigla] into the memory of its deceased husband the remarkable tomb, which was added to seven miracles of light”.

Obviously, Roman historian is not entirely precise. The fact is that [Artemissiya] it died two years after [Mavsola]. The recent months of its reign passed in the continuous wars, where it showed itself outstanding [voenachalnitsey] and, in spite of the complexity of the position of small [Karii], surrounded by enemies, could preserve the reign of husband. It is at the same time known that Alexander [Makedonskiy] after twenty years after death Of [mavsola], which were marked in [Karii] by desperate power contest, by disturbance and by palace coups, inspected mausoleum finished and by completely decorated. More accurate to assume that mausoleum they began to build even with the life Of [mavsola] and [Artemissiya] it only completed it. Indeed the construction of this scale it had to engage several years.

In contrast to the temple Of [artemidy] of Ephesian and other similar buildings of Asia Minor [Galikarnasskiy] mausoleum, preserving in many respects Greek traditions and construction methods, contains the explicit influence of east of [arkhitektur].[Prototipov] to it in the Greek architecture no, then followers in mausoleum proved to be the set: this type of construction subsequently was raised in the different regions of the Near East.

Architects constructed tomb to the [galikarnasskomu] tyrant in the form of the almost square building, whose ground floor was strict the tomb Of [mavsola] and [Artemissii]. Outside this huge funeral camera, with the area of 5000 square meters and with height about 20 meters, was covered by the plates of white marble, polished and polished in the Persian manner. Along the top of the ground floor went the frieze - the battle of hellenes with the Amazons - “[Amazonomakhiya]” of the work of great [Skopasa]. Besides [Skopasa] there worked according to [Pliniya], [Leokhar], [Briaksid] and By [timofey]. In the second floor, surrounded by colonnade, the offerings were stored, whereas as the roof of mausoleum served the pyramid, crowned by the marble [kvadrigoy]: in the chariot, charged by the four of horses, stood the statues Of [mavsola] and [Artemissii]. The statues of lions and skipping riders were arranged around the tomb.

[Galikarnasskiy] mausoleum signified by itself the sunset of classical Greek skill. Obviously, it was too rich and solemn in order to become properly beautiful. Even during the figure- reconstructions it seems the same heavy and static as Persian tombs, in it is more the east, than Greece. Possibly, by fault to that pyramid, possibly, the deaf high walls of the ground floor. In the Greek skill all three famous warrants were for the first time united. The ground floor was supported by fifteen [doricheskimi] columns, the internal columns of the upper level were Corinthian, and external - ionic.

[Pliniy] it asserts that the mausoleum reached in the height of hundred twenty five elbows, i.e., sixty meters, other authors give either larger or smaller numbers.

Mausoleum stood in the city center, which was being gotten down to the sea. Therefore from the sea it was visible from a distance and profitably it looked next to other temples Of [galikarnasa] - by colossal sanctuary Of [aresa], temples aphrodite and Hermes, which stood above, on the hill, along the sides of mausoleum.

On entire Ancient World were built the copies and imitations to mausoleum in [Galikarnase], but, as it is assumed to copies, they were less successful and therefore it is soon forgotten. It became so it was famous, that Romans called all large tombs mausoleums. Mausoleum was constructed so solid, that, although it was decrepit, he stood almost two thousand years. But about how mausoleum it perished, it is known from the chronicle item of the historian of the late middle ages, where is discussed the recent days of the order of [ioannitov] on the island Rhodes.

“In 1522, when the sultan Of [suleyman] was prepared for the attack on [rodostsev], great master in view of warning of danger sent several knights in order to bring into order of strengthening and to as far as possible prevent the debarkation of enemy. After arriving in [Mezinu] (thus there was then [Galikarnas]), knights here started strengthening of lock. After the absence of the suitable materials they used marble plates and chunks, of which consisted the ancient, half-wrecked building near the harbor. Removing chunk after the chunk, they after several days reached some of cave. They saw the excellent quadrangular hall, decorated with marble columns, with cornices and by different ornaments. The spaces between the columns were filled with adornments from different marble, whereas on the walls and on the ceiling were seen the marble reliefs, which depicted different scenes and even entire battles. After marvelling to all this, knights, however, used this material, just as by external chunks. Behind this hall they found still other less, into which conducted [nizenkaya] door. In this hall they saw quadrangular marble sepulchral monument with the urn confronting on it. This monument was made very skillfully from the white marble, which was being marvellously shone in the darkness. The entered knights did not have a possibility to remain there longer, since invocatory bell at this time struck. After returning next day, they saw monument with that destroyed and the grave of that opened. The pieces of gold brocade and gold plates were scattered on the earth. This forced them to assume that pirates, who scurried about on the coast, at night they penetrated they there and found many treasures…”

So to us downy the only reliable description of the funeral hall of mausoleum, made from the words of archaeologists “vice versa” - the latter, who saw mausoleum standing, and done everything so that nothing it would remain from the monument.

In the middle of the 19th Century the travellers on Asia Minor focused attention on the fact that the wall of the Turkish fortress Of [budrun], reconstructed from the [ionnitskogo] lock of holy Peter, they were folded not so much of the rock chunks, as of the marble. This is not surprising: the remainders of antique cities always served as building material first Byzantines, and then to Arabs and to Turks. But are already very beautiful and uncommon were uncommon the marble plates of the walls Of [budruna]: unknown genius populated their bas reliefs by furious people and gods.

When rumors about this reached the English ambassador to Turkey, it arrived into [Budrun] and after long negotiations and many bribes purchased permission to break in from the walls twelve plates and to transport them into the British museum. English scientists according to the preserved descriptions and the opinions of contemporaries soon surmised, that before them the part of the famous frieze Of [skopasa] - “[Amazonomakhii]”.

After being convinced of the fact that The [galikarnasskiy] museum must be searched for in [Budrune], sir Newton, the keeper of British museum, it hurried there. The first, that he saw, after landing on the coast, were two marble lions, fortresses inserted into the wall snouts to the sea. The Leos were also once borrowed by crusaders for the military building. Newton did not spend time for free. It climbed around entire fortress, finding and determining “stolened” plates and statues. In the expectation, as always [neskorogo], permission to the withdrawal of plates it began to search for the place, where once stood the mausoleum, which had to be located not far from the fortress. Otherwise to [ionnitam] there was no sense to drag from there plates and chunks.

In nine months, carried out in [Budrune], Newton found the fragments of mausoleum, and under the layer of the earth and garbage - four additional plates Of [skopasa]. When excavations approached toward the end, revealed most important finding - split to many parts the two-meter statues Of [mavsola] and [Artemissii], which stood before in the chariot, on to the top of mausoleum, and resolved all doubts almost whole marble horse head almost into the meter by length, with the bronze gold-plated bridle and the suspensions - adornments. Is amazing the fact that the head proved to be deformed. Newton surmised, that the horses, charged into the chariot of [kariyskikh] monarchs, stood at the [shestidesyatimetrovoy] height. By this was explained the disproportion: it was to be looked from a distance and from below to the horses.


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