Coliseum. The symbol of sublimity and might of Rome for the duration of millenia, coliseum were the place, equal to which on the incandescence of the passions boiled simply it was not there: passed in the arena of coliseum gladiatorial combat not to the life, but to death tens of thousands of spectators held in stress.
Coliseum was present hell for the slaves.
Official name of this gigantic construction - Flaviuses's amphitheatre, in the honor of Titus Flavius - the son of emperor [Vespasian]. The begun in 72 with A.D. and extended on many years building of coliseum passed with three emperors from Flaviuses's kind: To [vespasiane], Titus and Domitianus. Thus far on the spot of building was located artificial lake. Next to the lake were raised “gold palace”, luxurious residence Of [nerona], sadly well-known tyrant.
[Neronom] is directly connected the name of coliseum. Before the amphitheatre is an area on which once it was raised the 30-meter bronze statue Of [nerona], which was being named as “colossus”. It is considered that the name coliseum - enormous, colossal, is connected precisely with the colossus Of [nerona].
In the honor of the discovery amphitheatre in 80 declared the hundred-day games, in course of which Romans could see combat of many thousands of gladiators, while in combat of gladiators with the predators the huge amount of lions, tigers and other beasts was killed. On the spread of festivals with the discovery of amphitheatre could only be compared the millennial anniversary of Rome in 246, when on the legends in the arena of coliseum it was killed 32 elephants, 60 lions, 40 wild horses and tens of other animals - moose, zebra, tigers, giraffes and hippopotami. At the same time in the fatal battle competed about 2000 gladiators. Conducting combat between the gladiators was ended in 404; however, the struggles of gladiators with the predators continued to the end VI of century.
Its to century the coliseum had time to visit and by the fortress, when influential Roman families Days To [fradzhipane] and [deli] Of [annibaldi] actually converted amphitheatre into the unique family fortress.
Damage substituted to amphitheatre by strong earthquakes was aggravated by Romans themselves, when the chunks of travertine from the walls of coliseum were exported for the use with the building of other Roman palaces, such as [Palatstso] Of [kanchelleriya], [Palatstso] Of [venetsia], and even cathedral of [sv].[Petra].
Even Roman Catholic Church was participating to the history of coliseum. In 1750 dad Benedict XIV gave to coliseum status of holy place, since, as was considered church, amphitheatre was the place for loss “for Christ” of many martyrs of heathen Rome.
Entrance into the coliseum Each arched flight of the first tier was the entrance into the amphitheatre, 76 of these entrances were numbered. Above the arches and today it is possible to see the roman numerals of the numeration of entrances. Four main entrances were intended for the elite of Roman society: for the emperor and his environment, for the vestals, judges and for the honorable guests.
Coliseum outside The four-deck, coated by travertine amphitheatre has a form of ellipsis with the length of 188 meters, by width - 156 meters and by height - 57 meters.
Three lower tiers are executed in the form the arched flights, cut by [polukolonnami] in that strictly sustained by the builders of the coliseum of the canonical sequence: on the first tier - [doricheskie] [polukolonny], on the second - ionic, while on the third - Corinthian. The fourth tier was finished building later and it was remarkable fact that also today on its cornice it is possible to see openings, where were put supports for the stretching above the arena of the amphitheatre of the special awning, which protected spectators from the intense heat.
The splendid facade of coliseum in the antiquity thus appeared In the Middle Ages the coliseum strongly suffered from the fact that travertine, valuable building material, were used with the building of Roman palaces and basil. Furthermore, the strength of amphitheatre suffered because the metallic clamps, which connected between themselves the blocks of travertine, they were taken, after leaving those gaping and to this day opening.
Inside the coliseum Coliseum could contain to 70 thousand spectators, for whom were provided the places according to their social status.
The places of the senators (part of the first rows, lined from the white marble) it was intended for the Roman senators. On the spot each senator was carved his name. The multithousand tribunes of coliseum made possible for spectators to rapidly fill wide passages for the spectators. If necessary, all spectators could leave coliseum during 5-10 minutes. At that time coliseum was unique construction not only according to its sizes, but also on its functionality.
In the enormous arena of coliseum passed not only gladiatorial combat and horse contests, but also sea battles - “[navmakhii]”. The labyrinth of accomodations for the passage of gladiators and cells for the content of predators was located under the arena. Today, when the arena of amphitheatre is absent, and at its place are laid special floorings for the tourists, it is possible in the components to examine this the skillfully planned “behind the scene peace” of coliseum.
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