City of Chichen-Ittsa on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico
City of Chichen-Ittsa - the ancient city of [mayya], the archaelogical zone, located on the north of Yucatan peninsula, which is one of the most significant sights of the times of the Indians of [mayya] and [toltekov].
Here is located the majestic and most mysterious building of Mexico - pyramid Of [kukulkan]. Here it is possible to see the chock Of [moolya] - idol with the flat cup on the stomach (into it were lowered the hearts of those sacrificed), tsarist baths, ancient Indian observatory, sacred well of victims. Here the population Of [chichen]-[Itsy] threw different presentings, including of its tribeswomen, girls of 14-18 years. [Chichen]-[Ittsa] is considered as the Holy City.
“[Chichen]-[Itsa]” can be transferred as “place in the well of the tribe Of [itsa]”. City was based, as they assume, at the beginning VI century it was one of the largest cities of [mayya]. Toward the end the X century, however, for the unexplained reasons life here practically ceased. The structures, which relate to this period, are located mainly in the southern part of contemporary [Chichen]-[Itsy]. (Sometimes the very southern part of the city even calls old [Chichen] - Chichen Of viejo.)
Then city was occupied with [toltekami], which arrived in Yucatan from central Mexico. [Tolteki] gave [Chichen]-[Itse] the second life. Into the times of [toltekov] is formed the northern part of the city. Alas, toward the end XIV of century city again arrived into the decline and again it became depopulated. The middle of the 19th Century here visited the well-known researcher of the ruins of [mayya] American John Stevens (John Of stephens). In 1923 in [Chichen]-[Itse] began serious studies. At the present time the remainders of ancient city are dug out over the area of approximately 6 sq. km. Now [Chichen]-[Itsa], probably the most attended city of the ancient of [mayya]. Here it is possible to complete one-day excursion both of [Meridy] and from [Kankuna]. For the tourists, who desire to conduct in [Chichen]-[Itse] several days here openly several hotels.
The main sights Of Chichen-Ittsa is Ale- Castillo (El Castillo, that in the transfer from the Spanish it indicates “lock”), whom is called also the pyramid Of [kukulkana] (La Of piramide de Of kukulcan). [Kukulkan] in the language of [mayya] indicates “that finned of snakes” (more frequently, truth it is encountered the less correct transfer - “feathered of snakes”). Ale- Castillo is pyramid with the height of 25 m, on upper area which located temple. At the base of pyramid lies square with the side 55,5 m. the pyramid it has 9 levels. Along its sides rise four wide stairs, each of which has on 91 step. The stairs, which goes along the northern side of pyramid, along the edges below finishes by the snake heads, which are the symbol Of [kukulkana].
If the number of steps of stairs (91) was multiplied by the number of stairs (4) and was examined platform at the apex of the pyramid, on which stands the temple, as still one step, then we obtain 91x4+1=365. As is known, the number of days in the year is also equal to 365. This agreement gave to scientists the foundation for drawing the conclusion that the principle of calendar was assumed as the basis of pyramid, yes even pyramid itself, possibly, had some astronomical value. Inside the pyramid it is possible to pass through the opening in the sex of temple. Were there discovered the sculpture of the so-called red jaguar and [svoebraznaya] figure- throne, called chock -[Mool].
The pyramid Of [kukulkana] is in the center of large area. From the west side of this area is located another known sights Of [chichen]-[Itsy] - temple of soldiers. At the basis of the temple of soldiers the pyramid with the base 40 m on 40 m, which has four levels, lies. The area with four rows of columns is located before the temple of soldiers. The height of columns reaches 3 m. on the majority of these columns they are depicted [toltekskie] soldiers, strictly therefore the temple of soldiers so calls. Once columns supported roof. Alas, from the roof it did not remain and track. It did not remain not track, also, from the roof above [svyatileshchem], located on the upper area of the temple of soldiers. Only two stylized snake, the executed in the form columns and symbolizing [Kukulkana], they guard the entrance in the sanctuary.
Here is located the chock -[Mool], which became the [svoebraznym] symbol Of Chichen-Ittsa. By the way, this chock -[Mool] was found inside the temple of the soldiers, where the remainders of the previous building are located. From the south side of the temple of soldiers is located the so-called group of thousands of columns (Grupo de of las Of mil Of columnas). It is formed with three colonnades, which border sufficiently large area, from three sides. (By the way, from of this fourth, southern, the side area located the building, called for some reason market - Mercado). The Western colonnade, as beginning of which serve the columns before the temple of soldiers, is pulled to the south on 125 m with the width of 11 m. another colonnade it passes along the south side of temple and it is also pulled almost on 125 m. this colonnade, which bears the name of north, count 156 columns, located in 10 rows. (By the way, the width of this colonnade - 20 m). Let us note that as a whole in group of thousands of columns the round columns predominate.
From the pyramid Of [kukulkana] to the north goes the straight road with a width of 10 m. this lined from the stones road with a length of about 300 m it brings to so-called sacred [senotu] (Cenote de Of sacrificios, in Spanish, or Sacred Of cenote, in English). “[Senot]” can be transferred as “well”; however, the diameter of this well of approximately 60 m. its overall depth - about 50 m, water is at present located approximately on 20 m lower than the edge of well. Here the priests of [mayya] dropped people (mainly, young girls), [prinosimykh] into the victim to gods. Therefore this place known still as “the well of death”.
Since 1923, American Edward Thompson, who was, by the way, consul in [Meride], for several years conducted a study of [senota]. Several times it itself got down in the diving gear on the bottom of well. The remainders of the skeletons, extracted from the bottom of the well of death, confirmed its ominous name. Was extracted also the large number of adornments and articles of daily life of the ancient of [mayya].
By the way, in [Chichen]-[Itse] there is one additional reservoir - [senot] Of [shtolok] (Xtoloc Of cenote), which is been located to the south from the pyramid Of [kukulkana]. It less than sacred [senota] was used exclusively as the source of drinking water. About the fact that in [Chichen]-[Itse] [prinesenie] of people into the victim was commonplace they testify and the rock platforms, which are been located near Ale- Castillo, on which, as assume also they were achieved human offerings. This the so-called platform of Venus (Plataforma de Of venus), which is been located to the north from Ale- Castillo directly at the beginning of road to sacred [senotu], and the platform of jaguars and eagles (Plataforma de Of tigres y Of aguilas) to the northwest from the pyramid.
The platform of Venus was called its name in the honor of the planet of Venus, by which they worshipped to [tolteki]. The platform of jaguars and eagles is named so on the relief images on its walls. If we get accustomed ourselves, it is possible to reveal that the jaguars and eagles devour human hearts. One additional ominous place - [Tsompantli] (Tzompantli), or the temple of skulls (Temple of Of skulls, on- English).
To [tsompantli] it is the T-shaped platform, located next to the platform of jaguars and eagles, but exceeding by its sizes. The special feature Of [tsompantli] is the fact that the walls of this platform are covered with the relief images of skulls. For this very reason this construction was named - the temple of skulls. It is necessary to note that the human offerings arrived into [Chichen]-[Itsu] together with [toltekami]. Generally entire northern part Of [chichen]-[Itsy] reflects the strong influence of [toltekov].
To the West from [Tsompantli] is located the area for the game into the ball (Juego de Of pelota). In general in [Chichen]-[Itse] are counted eight areas for the game into the ball; however, this area - the largest. Moreover, not only in [Chichen]-[Itse]. This area for the game into the ball - largest of the areas in all cities of [mayya]. It suffices to only say that the length of this area 168 m, and span - 70 m. the dimensions strictly of play field are 83 m on 30 m. the height of walls - are more than 8 m.
In the eastern wall of area is located the temple of jaguar (Temple of of the Of jaguars, on- English). It includes two sanctuaries - it is upper and it is lower, which sometimes call the respectively upper and lower temple of jaguar. Upper sanctuary located above the wall, which limits area, and leaves to the play field. Apparently, the hence notable persons of city controlled game. The entrance into the lower sanctuary of the temple of jaguar is located from the outer side of area. With the entrance into the lower sanctuary the stylized figure of jaguar, which gave name to entire this temple, stands.
In the northern part of the area is located the temple of bearded person (Temple of of the Of beared Of man). Temple was called its name on the relief inside the temple. Frequently, however, this temple is called simply northern. Moving along the road, which leads to the southwest from Ale- Castillo, we reach a comparatively small pyramid, which bears the name of the grave of supreme priest (Tumba of del Of gran Of sacerdote, on- Spanish, or The Of high Of priest's Of grave, on- English). This name this pyramid was called because on its upper area are discovered seven epitaphs, which testify, in all likelihood, about the burial of important people of city. This pyramid calls also [Osuari] (The Of ossuary, on- English), which indicates “tomb”. True, frequently this construction is called simply small pyramid. Its height is 10 m.
Further to the south is located the so-called red house (La Of casa Of colorada, on- Spanish, or The Of red Of house, on- English). Its name red house obtained because of the red paint on the facade. Red house - typical construction of the ancient of [mayya]. Its roof is decorated with the characteristic images of the big-nosed god of rain of chock. To the southeast from the red house it is found by one of the most known sights Of [chichen]-[Itsy] - [Karakol] (El Caracol), that in the transfer from the Spanish indicates “the shell of snail”.
This immense construction is tower, which is located on the dual platform. It is considered that the tower Of [karakolya] was used [mayya] for the astronomical observations; therefore frequently this construction is called observatory. Unfortunately, the upper part of the tower is seriously damaged. To the south from [Karakolya] is located the powerful construction, which has base by the size of 70 m on 35 m and that being rising above the earth almost on 20 m. for some incomprehensible reasons of this construction reminded Spaniards, for the first time [uvidivshim] it, monastery they named its convent (Las Of monjas). In general in appearance it rather resembles palace. The wide stairs, located from the northern side of monastery and which divides it as into two parts, makes it possible to rise upward, where strictly and is located “monastery itself”. Monastery is decorated with [relfnymi] patterns and masks of the god of chock.
From the eastern side to the basic building of monastery nearly precisely costs so that called Of [iglesiya] (La Of iglecia), which in the transfer from the Spanish indicates “church”. This building, naturally, not referring any to church, was called this name exceptionally by analogy from [Monastyrem]. It is also decorated with relief and masks of chock.
САМЫЕ ИНТЕРЕСНЫЕ НОВОСТИ
Все права защищены.
Копирование материалов разрешено только с указанием ссылки на сайт drevnijmir.ru.