The city of Machu Picchu what in the transfer indicates “old apex”, one of the most unusual cities. Stopped up between two [ostroverkhimi] peaks and framed by the crown of the high mountains covered with scaffolding, it is located on the height of 2280 m on the steep slope above the valley “the river of the sun” Of [urubamby] and sinks in the snowy clouds and the thick fogs.
Why Incas decided to be based in this almost inaccessible place highly in the Andes, it is unclear, until now. From the populated areas, located along the roads of empire, control of the territories, allotted by complete autonomy, was accomplished. Possibly, I dip -[Pikchu] it was created for the same, but the exceptional geographical location of city, which most of all was suitable for conducting the astronomical observations, soon made its privileged. Incas considered that the most beautiful views, presented by nature, were allotted by supernatural force. In this respect The city of Machu Picchu it was the ideal and even mystical place, where the sky and the earth were encountered. Possibly, it they selected in order to be as close as possible to the sun and to hourly serve its supreme deity.
Long time was considered that people populated this locality long before the appearance of Incas and rock construction and mega-lytic walls were the creations of the representatives of prehistoric civilization. The most daring scientists assigned the authorship of buildings to extraterrestrial architects. However, contemporary researchers explained that the city was built according to the order of the ruler of Incas [Pachakuti] [Yupankui] in 1450. I dip -[Pikchu] completely it could be the second summer residence of sovereign and his court, since in the capital piece climate was considerably to [zharche]. Piece was in 1533 obedient by Spaniards under Francisco's leadership [Pisarro], and in 1572 fall the last capital of Incas Of [vilkabamba]. It became depopulated even I dip -[Pikchu] between these two dates, but which there was specific reason, no one knows.
Researchers reject hypothesis about the external intrusion: neither tracks of violence nor destruction they revealed. There is the assumption that the epidemic of smallpox mowed population. But perhaps, inhabitants left their city into the punishment for the disgrace, substituted to one of the sacred virgins of the sun. According to the evidence Of [gartsilasa] of de [Vegya], son of [inkskoy] princess and Spanish aristocrat, the violence above the sacred virgin punished by death of the guilty, all its relatives, neighbors and even entire community. in addition at the [oskvernennom] place already it was not possible to live even animal. However that may be, but researchers do not lose confidence in the fact that sometimes they can guess this secret.
I dip -[Pikchu] they frequently call the lost city of Incas. Entirely a little time it was required to that so that the jungle would absorb houses, temples and walls. City was immersed into the 300- summer sleep, until it is completely randomly discovered by American [Khayramom] [Bingemom], that organized archaelogical expeditions into South America. In one of the trips it met the Indian, who showed it the city, forgotten in the scaffolding. Scientist, convinced of the fact that it revealed [Vilkabambu], it returned here in year, after securing by the support of national geographical society and government of Peru. For participants in the expedition it was possible to clear from the vegetation of building, area and I dip -[Pikchu] artificial terraces. Studies Of [kh]. [Bingem] opened slightly the curtain of the secret of the life of ancient city, but, until now, our knowledge about this surprising place very of [ogranichenny].
To fall into the city- fortress I dip -[Pikchu] it was complex. Safety was the deepest concern of its populated people. To it led one of the paved roads, part of the extensive road net, which encircles entire state territory of Incas from the coast to the Andes. The nearer to the mountains, the more dangerous the way became: in many places the narrow road, along which could be moved only one person, passed along the frightening precipices and the breaks. From one side from the settlement it was they will throw the lift bridge above the abyss, while with another, southeast, that not protected by perpendicular cliffs, were constructed the walls with a height of five meters and with a thickness of meter. Patrol towers stood on all surrounding hills.
Many buildings I dip -[Pikchu] partially they are cut in the cliff, it is partially folded of the skillfully urged rock chunks. All possible protrusions and hollows ancient Peruvians adapted under the construction needs: mountains and cliffs were since ancient times for them the personification of ancestors; therefore never they attempted to modify them. Magic value had the stone, which they obtained in the environments. The cabins of masters, architects, experienced builders and simple workers there were arranged.
Probably, fact that many stones were read a little in Incas as revered, it is possible to explain so thorough a trimming of blocks. Indeed between some of them it is not possible to push through blade! True, only those stones, which dispatch to the construction of temples and houses of rich and notable townspeople, were characterized by the highest degree of working. It is known that Incas ground blocks with the aid of the bronze and rock tools, and sometimes they rubbed their against each other until they ideally were adjoined between themselves. Local masters knew how to make stone- clamps and many-sided stone- nails, which gave construction stability. One additional sign of [inkskoy] architecture - trapeziform windows and the door apertures, which frequently overlapped by the monoliths weighing several tons.
Device of the city
I dip -[Pikchu] it was divided in three sectors. In one were arranged royal residence, houses to [znati] and temples. The large sacred area separated this region from the block of the simple average men, workshops, benches and cemetery, arranged in the funeral cliff. It is below, in the southern part of the city, there were the houses of peasants with the storerooms and the enclosures for the cattle. The two-slope surface roofs of their dwelling of an Inca covered with the straw, which they spread to the wooden beams, and they were attached to the rock supports with the aid of the lianas. Several similar structures attempted to reconstruct scientists. Contemporary tourists can see the results of their work.
In the south and in the West I dip -[Pikchu] they were arranged the stepped agricultural terraces, protected by walls from the roughly processed stones. They were called “[andenes]” (hence and it went the name of the mountainous area of Andes). This arrangement of land facilitated artificial irrigation and prevented undermining of soil. [Andenes] was filled by the fertile earth, [privozimoy] from the valley Of [urubamby]. Here reared maize, potatoes, medicinal grasses and flowers. However, I dip -[Pikchu] some terraces it was clearly missing for the subsistence of the thousandth population. In a radius of five kilometers from the city many places, intended exclusively for agriculture and cattle breeding, are discovered. Peasants, who lived there, were people “second type” - by the representatives of the separate ancient tribes, there is no time extruded by Incas from their earth.
Between themselves the individual parts of the cities, which moreover were located on the different level, connected the branched network of the rock stairs, cut directly in the cliff. The high level of engineering and construction skill was characterized by water-supply system. Water was given into the city from the mountain sources along the artificially created channels. The water pipe of ancient people today acts just as 500 years ago.
I dip -[Pikchu] the sacred temples
Thus it came out that most of all the [inkskiy] city was famous by its uncommon temples. Holy of holies I dip -[Pikchu] - the highest point of city, [Intiuatan], “the place, to which regards with favor the sun”. The ritual stone, which resembles sundials, is its heart. With its aid the priests determined the time of day, calculated months and years. Stone- altar played the special role in the ceremony of the symbolic mooring of the sun, which they fulfilled so that the heavenly body would return in I dip -[Pikchu] for the following year. Cajole deity they could all possible offerings - probably, these were not only animals, but also children.
The temple of condor, named is very uncommon so because of the stone, which repeats the outlines of bird head and beak. Two cliffs, which symbolize wings, rise behind it. Must be, uncommon stone also served as altar, indeed “beak” was bordered by the chute, into which, most likely, had to flow the blood of victims. Possibly, this temple was connected with the cult of the condor, which was for Incas the personification of freedom, air.
Indisputable masterpiece of the architecture of Incas - temple of the sun. Elevated on the cliffs, it by something resembles the nest of condor. Hence priests could conduct astronomical observations, for example determine the precise position of the sun which was important for conducting the mystical rituals. The semicircular wall of temple hides the enormous granite pedestal with many dents, similar to the altar and for sure served as credence. On its surface the strip of light always appears during the day of summer solstice at the rise.
In the foot of the cliff, on which they will erect the temple of the sun, is arranged the entrance into the cave, which served, probably, by tomb for the mummy of certain notable persona. Incas believed that the soul of man remained connected with the body until it is not touched by decay. Therefore dead persons from the number to [znati] and clergy underwent mummification. By the way, the mummies of Incas in no way resemble in the classical Egyptian. Ritual stone with three steps was in the east discovered after the urban feature. One of them signifies sky, dwelling of gods, the second - earth, the third - underground reign, where returns entire living. The dead persons were plotted to this stone, and then under the action of solar rays in the daytime and cold winds at night there occurred their natural mummification.
I dip -[Pikchu] the designation of many temples unknown. For example, to what deity the temple of three windows was dedicated, scientists yet did not explain, although they established that, as Incas assumed, the windows of this building conducted into infinity.
New riddles brought the excavations of the so-called hall of mortars. In its center the stones with the hollowed in them holes, in the specific time filled by water are located. Because of the special arrangement of windows and the focusing of the solar rays of such of halls it could serve for the astronomical searches, for example the important calculations of the periods of agricultural works. It is not excluded also, that these holes were used by priestesses for preparing the paints from the ground plants and minerals for the paintings of cloths and vessels. Local residents propose their explanation: in their opinion, the filled with water mortars - these are is two widely opened eyes, which are approached for the sun and sky.
I today dip -[Pikchu] - popular tourist center. Many strive here in order to with its own eyes see the unsurpassed construction skill of Incas. But many draws here legend against [Eldorado] - to mythical country, rich in gold and by precious stones. Gold and silver of an Inca named tears of the sun and moon, these metals were for them sacral. Europeans demonstrated entirely different relation to them. First Spanish [konkistadory], after taking pieces, found here so many gold objects, that approximately during half a year of their [pereplavlyali] into the ingots was sent into the metropole (this it became the reason for unprecedented during entire history depreciation of gold: it fell in price several times).
After exhausting the reserve of Incas, Spaniards developed sequential campaign on the search for treasures, after believing indication that they were hidden not far from the pieces in the impenetrable mountain locality. I dip -[Pikchu] by the force of my position long time they identified with this fairytale edge. And, despite the fact that articles made of the noble metals in it was not discovered, they nevertheless called it by the gold city of Incas. Of the even without so impressive history the lonely, forgotten in the mountains I dip -[Pikchu] it could be considered one of the most mysterious cities. And hardly in this plan with it will be possible to be contended for any other corner of planet.
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