The riddle of the sphinx (Arab name it indicates “father of horror”) not of [daet] of rest to people no less than of pyramid. Although now the Egyptologists are convinced that the sphinx is dated by the epoch IV of dynasty, we encounter the complete absence of the reference about it in the texts of ancient reign. Why prominent contemporary scientists do continue to connect sphinx with The [khafroy] (Egyptian pharaoh IV of the dynasty of end 27 - the beginning of 26 substances is B.C. more noted for under Ancient Greek name Chephren) and to insist, that “(him) the dating with the time IV of the dynasty of ancient reign… is no longer subject to doubt”?
One of the reasons - style, carved on granite [stele], which stands between the front paws of monument, and that using as the proof of the fact that the sphinx of [vozdvig] Of [khafra].
[Stela] (rock post or plate with the carven on it texts or the images, [stely] are established in the honor of the outstanding events: victories, into memory about the large buildings and others) is not the contemporary of sphinx and immortalizes the heroic efforts of pharaoh [Tutmos] IV (1401-1391 g. d. A.D.). On the clearing of sphinx from the sand, in which that was buried, and is characterized the statue with the lion body as embodiment “great magic force, which existed in this place from the beginning of all times”. In this inscription on line 13 is also a first style of the name Of [khafra] - [Khaf]. The presence of this style according to of sir [E]. [A]. [Uollis] [Badzha], “very important, since proves that… the priests Of [geliopolisa], which advised [Tutmosu] to undertake the clearing of sphinx from the sand, believed that it was planned [Khafroy]…” But actually whether the style Of [khaf] does prove this?
When [stela] was opened by Genoa adventurer [Dzhanbattistoy] [Kavilya] in 1817 ; line 13, which now completely was erased, was already badly damaged. We know about its existence because soon after excavations English philologist Thomas Young, prominent specialist for the interpretation of ancient-Egyptian hieroglyphs, were to even able make facsimile of inscription. The transfer of line 13 made by him sounds as follows: “… which we bear to it: bulls… and all young vegetables; and that, whom we will glorify… [Khaf]… the statue, made into the name [Atum]- chorus -[em]-[Aketa]…”
After assuming that [Khaf] - this name Of [khafra], Young added to it style in the brackets in order to show that the gap was filled with it. However, in 1905. the American Egyptologist James Henry [Brested], which studied Young's facsimile, came to the conclusion that the error was made: “This reference of tsar [Khafry] was perceived as indication that the sphinx was the affair of the hands of this tsar - conclusion, which was not substantiated; (in the facsimile (from Lat. fac of simile - make similar)) Young there is no hint to the cartouche (adornment in the form of panel or not to the end of the expanded roll, on which it is placed coat of arms, emblem or inscription.)…”
In all inscriptions of ancient Egypt, from the beginning also to the end of the civilization pharaoh's, the names of tsars were always placed into the oval framework - cartouches. Therefore it is very difficult to understand, by what, by means on granite [stele] between the paws of sphinx the name of this lord, as [Khafra] - however, and any other monarch - it could be traced without the assumed cartouche.
Furthermore, even if the style Of [khaf] had to relate to [Khafre], this in no way means that precisely it [vozdvig] of sphinx. It is so probable that it was immortalized for any other merits. For example, perhaps did not can it, similar to many followed it pharaohs ([Ramses] OF THE II, [Tutmos] IV, [Akhmos] of the I, and so forth), and possibly, to many its predecessors, to be the restorer of sphinx?
Sphinx costs in the pit (origin of which is not known) in the foot of hill with the pyramids and if it are filled up, then the part of the head will be visible only. Pravda it follows to consider that plateau [Gize] - this is stony waste land, but not desert with the barkhans of sand, as it can be it seemed many.
Sphinx was of not is only it was filled but also it was restored - reports to us the same [stela], established By [tutmosom] between the paws of sphinx. “Once, still being one of the candidates for the throne, [Tutmos] hunted near the pyramids. Tired, it fell asleep at noon in the shadow of cliff- monolith. In the sleep to it appeared the god Of [kharmakhis], which allegedly depicted the sphinx, and it required to dig out its body, pressed by sands. But into the reward it promised the dual crown of Egypt - i.e., to make by its lord of upper and lower Egypt”. Probably, in the future pharaoh was some doubts about obtaining of throne, and it could be vowed to carry out the will of god in order to obtain crown for sure. When [Tutmos] IV became pharaoh, it held in control its oath. The statue of sphinx was dug up. Were found the fallen parts of the head. They lay on the earth, filled up by sand, between its front paws. Probably the head of sphinx for facilitating the reducing works it was necessary to saw into several large blocks and to establish them on the place in parts. It is possible to assume that and the remaining components of the head: tsarist crown, head of snake, godly beard and holiday of pays - were also restoreed.
But [vernemsya] to the object itself gigantic statue with the body of lion and the head of man looks from Egypt to the east along the thirtieth parallel. It is cut out of the limestone monolith, which forms the rock base of Guise plateau, and has the sizes of 72 meters into the length, 11,5 meters in the arms and 20 meters into the height.
It is possible to argue on the similarity of face of sphinx to Chephren. Especially taking into account that many of the obtained statues of pharaoh Chephren still in the past century were inspected [Borkhardtom]. Taking into account the style of performance, nature and the quality of working stone, it carried these sculptures not to IV of dynasty, but to the epochs XXV and even XXVI of the dynasties, into which was manifested extraordinary interest in the history of Egypt. Specifically, then in large quantities with the special carefulness and with love were manufactured sculptural images pharaoh's the first dynasties.
1988- m year Japanese scientists ([Sakudzhi] Of [ioshimura]) with the aid of the echolocators showed that the processed stone of the sculpture of sphinx is much more ancient, than the blocks of pyramids, i.e., the material of sculpture. The second result was still more sensational: electronic equipment showed under the left paw of rock sculpture the narrow tunnel, which leads to the side of the pyramid of Chephren. It begins at the depth of two meters and departs inclined downward. To further trace it thus far proved to be impossibly, but professor [Ioshimura] promised to create new device, it is special for investigating this underground motion.
Although the first interesting result was obtained still at the beginning of the 90th by the American geophysicist Thomas [Dobetskya], who conducted around the sphinx his seismographic studies. The complex equipment, which it brought with itself, it fixed numerous “anomalies and cavities in the cliff between paws, also, along the sides of sphinx”. It describes one of these cavities as follows: “… It is sufficiently great, it has sizes of approximately 9 meters per 12 and is located at the depth less than 5 meters. Its correct form ( rectangular ) is improbable for the cavities of natural origin… Therefore there are the foundations for assuming that it - the matter of the hands of human”.
Another fact: hydrological studies revealed the tracks of erosion from the powerful flow of water in the base of the pedestal of the statue (but not by wind and by sand, as they insist are Egyptologists) (into [t].[ch]. and on the processed surface). British geophysicists evaluate the age of erosion in 10 -12 millenia (!). The aforesaid confirms the hypothesis, very popular during our days: Guise's complex was built twice.
At present all base of sphinx and paw they are restoreed. Many archaelogical monuments Egyptians not only restore, but also build anew, in the Luxor even stand the tower cranes.
In principle it cannot be objected against the possibility of the aqueous erosion of sphinx, since all are agreeable, what in the past Egypt underwent the sharp extractions of climate and periodically was heated - both by the sea (moreover in the not too distant times) and by the strong floods of the Nile. The latter, as they consider, corresponded to the melting of ices of last glacial period. According to contemporary views, it occurred about 15 000 years d. A.D. however, the extreme floods of the Nile periodically they occurred and later, it B.C. hence follows that up to approximately 10 000 years if the great sphinx underwent aqueous erosion, then it was constructed to the appropriate flood or the floods. Problem in the fact that the sphinx underwent erosion up to the level of neck. For this the rise of water throughout the entire valley of the Nile to 18 meters would be required. So that even if there is a reason for aqueous erosion, then these are rains.
On the megaliths of the temple of valley (near the sphinx), is also observed the aqueous erosion exactly of the same nature as on the sphinx itself. In this case it is interesting to note that the preserved the units of granite revetment are processed in such a way that their internal surface exactly repeats the form of the carrying limestone blocks, which by this time already underwent thorough erosion. Since the granite revetment appears just as other Egyptian architectural construction of the epoch of the ancient reign (but limestone blocks noticeably they differ), this can be considered the additional confirmation of the hypothesis, according to which the respected and subjected to strong erosion construction was restored and renovated by the pharaohs of ancient reign. Robert [Shokh] clearly supports this point of view: “I remain with my persuasion, reports the professor of geology of Boston university, that the back of the granite revetment of temples was in the epoch of ancient reign processed in such a way as to fit closely to the irregularities of the form of the carrying limestone blocks, which arose as a result of earlier weathering”.
Taking into account presented it is possible to present the sequence of events thus. About 12,5 thousand years ago the unknown architects of [vozdvigli] the complex of pyramids, after coding in its plan the connection of three planets of the solar system, and in the orientation of the statue of lion - date when it occurred to be. Time destroyed pyramids, but the sphinx, hollowed from the monolithic cliff, and possibly, filled up by sand, it kept balance. After 8000 years, in the epoch of administration the pharaoh's of the fourth dynasty, remaining construction restored. Excluded, however, that also sphinx underwent the restoration: it is assumed that originally it depicted simply the lion, and human head - if concretely, the head of pharaoh Chephren (opposite pyramid of which it costs) - to it they fitted during pharaoh Chephren's lifetime.
It is interesting that, French archaeologists noticed: the dating of Egyptian flood coincides with the date of the loss of legendary Atlantis in Plato…
САМЫЕ ИНТЕРЕСНЫЕ НОВОСТИ
Все права защищены.
Копирование материалов разрешено только с указанием ссылки на сайт drevnijmir.ru.