Egyptian pyramids. One of the most important archaelogical discoveries, sometimes made in The [giza] plateau, where cost three great pyramids (Cheops, Chephren and [Mikerina]), the grave of the builders of pyramids. In the opinion the Egyptian archaeologist Of [zakhi] Of [khavassa], this finding proves, that those, who built pyramids, were workers and craftsmen, Egyptians, but not by slaves. We know from hieroglyphic inscriptions and graffiti that the qualified builders worked in their section the year round. They elevated their tombs, supplied with statues and funeral inventory, not far from the pyramids.
Tombs themselves are built from the raw brick, their forms vary from the mini- pyramids to the stepped pyramids and [mastaba]. Some tombs were built with the use of granite, basalt and diorite, i.e., the sufficiently expensive materials, accessible only with the successful generations of builders, who used the stone, which was remained from the building of tsarist tombs and [pominalnykh] temples.
The analysis of skeletal remainders showed that middle age of dead persons was from 30 and to 35 years. Many remains bear on themselves the tracks of hard exhausting work. However, astonishes that level of medical care, which was accessible to these people. Other [Azza] Of [sarri] ale- Dean from the national research center established that one of the builders successfully transferred the trepanation of skull, and the broken hands of some workers were cured with the aid of the wooden tires and the bandages. To one master they amputated foot, after which it lived already 14 years. Other [Salekh] Of [badair], the dean of the medical department of Cairo university, revealed on one of the skeletons the tracks of syphillis.
Upper [nekropol] is noted for its unique tombs, built from the limestone and the raw brick, much with more elegant and more majestic, than the tomb of the lower part of [nekropolya]. Statues and other monuments of the upper part of [nekropolya] are characterized by the higher level of artistic performance. Two tombs were supplied with the long [protsessionnoy] road from the stone with the pond for the libations at the end. Possibly, this was the analog of trough temple in the tsarist funeral complex. The unique titles, discovered in the tombs of upper [nekropolya], they speak about the kind of the occupations of the dead persons: “the construction commander of tombs”, “the supervisor of masters and workers”. People, buried here, these are those builders, who died during the building of pyramids.
Mark [Lener], working in eastern part of one of the tombs of builders, revealed bakeries for the bakings of bread, supplied with forms and furnaces, storages for the sorting of salt fish and [kuzni] for metal working. Possibly, not far from this place was located the tsarist palace: are next revealed the remainders of the immense sewerage system, which attended approximately three square kilometers of settlement.
Here in the antiquity the camp of the builders of pyramids was arranged. It was divided into two villages. In one permanent workers, who returned to life to the service to tsar and buried in the upper cemetery, lived; in another - those, who dealt with the haul of stones and they were buried on the lower cemetery. This testifies about the social stratification on Wednesday of the workers, whose total number did not exceed 20000 people. By no means 100000 builders of pyramids, described by Herodotus, great Greek historian, who visited Egypt in 5 v. B.C. alas, even “the father of history” did not know entire truth about Guise's pyramids.
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