A question about how were built pyramids, not [daet] of rest no longer one generation of researchers. Thus, give let us become acquainted with the existing opinions about the building of Egyptian pyramids.
Father of the history
In a question of the building of pyramids, naturally, it cannot be manage without the evidence “of the father of history” Herodotus, who visited Egypt 425- m to year to Christmas of Christ's. “The utilized method consisted in building by steps, or as some they are called - numbers or by terraces. When the construction of basis was finished, blocks for the following number higher than basis rose from the ground level by the adaptations, made from the short wooden levers; in this first number there were another, that raised blocks to one level above, thus, step by step blocks they rose all above and it is above. Each number or level had its own collection of one and the same type mechanisms, which moved loads from the level to the level. The completion of the construction of pyramid began on top from the uppermost level, it continued downward, and it concluded with lowest levels, which are been located nearer to the earth”.
Reference by Herodotus “wooden machines” gave pulse to the direction of studies. Italian Egyptologist [Osvaldo] [Falestiedi] considers that remainders of one of such machines found in the 19th Century with the excavations of the temple of tsarina They [khatsepshut]. The absorbed Italian knew how to restore ancient device, and it earned!
Designed Of [falestiedi] machine is similar to the cradle. Inside wooden framing is placed bound by ropes the rock block, which is swung with the aid of the special wedges. With the aid of this swaying, ancient Egyptians raised the stones weighing several tons. The discovery [Falestiedi] approved Japanese and American engineers and archaeologists. And the independent examination confirmed the rightness of Italian. Now [Falestiedi] together with the engineers from the Turin(sk) polytechnic institute it is going to create the working model of device, which will raise the stones with a weight of up to forty tons.
But not only [Falestiedi] inspired the words of Herodotus: American Ron [Uayett] designed his version. This “lift” actually works. Obvious simplicity of construction, ease in the lift of heavy loads, very operating principle and many other properties of the given construction make this mechanism extremely similar to that, which was described by Herodotus, and who was used by ancient Egyptians during the construction of pyramids.
Pyramids are equal to the stars
But how ancient Egyptians, who did not know compass, did orient their construction? Answer is obvious - on the stars.
Keith [Spens] considers that, if to be more precise, these stars: Mizar [Kokhab], in the constellations of large and Ursa Minor. Because of the displacement of their own axis of the Earth in the space (with the period into 26000 years) these two stars into the different centuries indicate the different sides of light. After calculating, when they showed to the north, it is possible to very accurately determine the time of the building of pyramids.
Moreover, with the aid of the theory “two stars” wonderfully are explained those errors in the levelling off of the pyramids, which nevertheless allowed the Egyptians (strictly, Spence's metal it developed their theory for explaining these errors). Indeed pyramids were built not simultaneously, stars in this time managed a little to be displaced, and direction “to the north” also somewhat displaced. Today's “northern” star - polar - in those years showed entirely not to the north, and it did not can to serve as orientator for the Egyptians.
Unknown, actually whether ancient architects determined direction to the north along two stars; however, there are no arguments whatever against the fact that they could make this. Reliably we know only one: pyramids were equalized to the north because the Egyptians considered that the dead pharaoh becomes star before the northern sky. Therefore completely logically possible to assume that with building of pyramids for the corpses pharaoh's they cast looks to the side of their new [obitalishcha].
With the aid of his method Keith [Spens] it calculated the time of building great pyramid in [Gize] (one of seven miracles of light). It considers that this occurred in 2478 to our era plus- minus of five years. Thus, according to “astronomical” theory to the great pyramid of 4478 years - to 75 years greater than it was counted, until now.
Water - friend of the man
They assume that the levelling off occurred as follows: above the aqueous ditch with length in several ten meters from its one end to another stretched thin tow rope, and then they followed its reflection on the aqueous surface, until it coincided with the reflection of the Pole star. (In the eastern side of the pyramid of Cheops they were actually discovered the remainders of ditches.)
Water could help builders, also, with the levelling off of base along horizontal. Method is the following: the selected section they first lined by the network of the ditches, which were filled with water. Then, according to lowering in the water level, they split off the stone between the ditches, until area became sufficiently flat so that it would be possible to begin the building. Base was sometimes, however, equalized only on the perimeter, and in the middle left rocky elevation, which economized labor and time of builders.
The ships went to our harbor
Egyptologist [Zakhi] Of [khavass] asserts that the communications about the large weight of rock blocks - not are more than speculation. The weight of the blocks, from which are built the pyramids, did not exceed [poltonny]. For the building ancient-Egyptian engineers constructed harbor in 800 meters to the east from the recently discovered trough temple To [khufu] (Cheops). This harbor was used for the transport to the plateau of stone, obtained in other stone quarries of the country - for example, the granite, used for the funeral camera To [khufu] - from the excellent white limestone, by which the pyramid was coated.
Harbor also was used for the delivery of workers from their houses in Memphis and other adjacent cities. Foodstuffs from the farms on the Nile coasts was brought as the victims for the temples, and it was used for the subsistence of the inhabitants of the [pripiramidnykh] cities, critical for the maintenance of the cult of deceased tsar. To the south from the pyramid To [khufu] Mark [Lener] revealed the quarry, in which was obtained the stone for its building. Were near found the remainders of ramp from the crushed stone and the silt. This ramp went from the stone quarries to the southeastern angle of pyramid To [khufu]. Most likely, on it raised blocks.
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