Ancient China arose on the basis of the neolithic cultures, which were established in it was 5th 3 millenia B.C. in the average flow of Hwang Ho river. The pond of Hwang Ho became the main territory of shaping of the ancient civilization of China, in the course of the long time of relative isolation developed under the conditions. Only from middle 1 of millenium B.C. begins the process of expanding the territory, southwards, first into the region of the pond Of [yanzy], it is and then further to the south. On the face of our era the state of ancient China leaves already far beyond the limits of the pond of Hwang Ho, although northern boundary, the ethnic territory of the ancient Chinese of [ostaetsya] of almost constant.
Ancient Chinese class society and statehood was formed somewhat later than the ancient civilizations of ancient front Asia, but nevertheless, after their appearance they begin to be developed at the sufficiently rapid rate and in ancient China are created the high forms of the economic, political and cultural life, which lead to the storing of original social and political and cultural system.
History of China
The history of China begins from the times of the ruler fie of SI, which lived 30-40 centuries prior to the beginning of our era. According to legends, precisely, the gods inspired it for writing of the sacred book of ancient China “[Itszin]”, from which resulted the theory about the fact that the physical universe arose and is developed because of the alternation of [in] and Jan. Relative to remaining history - in the ancient annalistic sources it is mentioned no other rulers of China, preceding dynasty [Shan].
1400-1027 state and dynasty Of [in] ([Shan]) were located in the territory of the modern province Of [khenan], and also part of the adjacent provinces. It is conquered by the tribe of Chou.
1027-771 states and dynasty Western of Chou. [Chzhouskie] leaders adopted many foremost forms of the administration of the state Of [in]. Entire its history state waged wars with the nomadic tribes (beckon, [zhuny], di and other). West of Chou was destroyed by the tribes of [zhunov].
771-256 B.C. state and dynasty eastern of Chou. Lift of Chinese culture.
481-221 B.C. the period “being fought” reigns. Fight for the hegemony between seven “strongest reigns”. The reign Of [tsin] became the nucleus of the created empire.
221-207 to i. e. the administration of the dynasty Of [tsin]. Is created the first centralized state - empire Of [tsin]. The first emperor of China [Tsin] Of [shi]-[khuandi] (221-210 B.C.) builds great wall for the protection from the nomads, he enlarges and will reorganize army, united legislation is introduced, is achieved the unification of coin, measures and weights, is established the system of political system, whose features will live until XX v. dynasty it completes by overthrow from the throne of its son.
202 B.C. - 9 A.D. the administration of the Western (early, or the first) dynasty Of [khan]. Founder - To [lyu] Of [ban], one of the leaders of uprising against the dynasty Of [tsin], former is the warden of small hamlet. Is restored the system of [tsinskogo] state administration; however, many laws were softened. Propagation of confucianism.
140-87 B.C. emperor [U]-[di]'s administration. It introduced the system of state examinations to the substitution of executive positions. More than forty years it waged wars against the adjacent peoples and the states, the considerably enlarged boundaries of empire. During its administration [Khanskaya] empire survived the apogee of its political and economic might and again it proved to be in the state of deep internal crisis.
25-220 A.D. the administration of the eastern (late) dynasty Of [khan]. Buddhism penetrated from India finds wide influence to China. II v. - the country envelopped deep political and economic crisis.
184-205 uprising “yellow bandages” - the immense uprising of peasants and slaves, headed by [daosskim] preacher Chang [Tszio]. It with the enormous labor was depressed by regular army.
220-280 epochs Of [troetsarstviya] in the Chinese history. Three independent states on the fragments of there is no time united empire govern the dynasties Of [vey].[ShuiU].
280 [Veyskiy] general [Syma] [Yan] on several decades combined entire China under her authority.
581-618 administration of emperor dynasty thrust, based by general Ian [Tszyanem]. Was conducted the association of China (589). It is thrown down by the important feudal lord Lee by yuan.
Religions of China
The religions of China never existed in the form rigidly centralized “church”. Traditional the religion of ancient China was the mixture of local beliefs and ceremonies, united into unified whole under the universal theoretical constructions of scientific husbands. Nevertheless, both among the formed strata of society and among the peasants the greatest popularity conquered three great philosophical schools, often called three religions of China: confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism.
[Konfutsiy] - founder of ethics- political study “confucianism”, was originated in VI century B.C. from the ruler Of [cheukhiiy] city in the small reign Lu on the north of ancient China. Father [Konfutsiya] To [shu] Liana- CW (Chemical Weapons) had two wives. From the first wife it has nine daughters, while from the second - weak son, who soon died. When To [shu] Liana- CW were carried out 70 years, it seriously thought about the heir and decided to be married again. Its third wife became excellent [Ching] Of [tsi], young of three daughters of family Jaehn.
Confucianism - ethics- political study, which arose in ancient China, after 300 years after death [Konfutsiya]. Created [Konfutsiem] the system of philosophical views, showed enormous action on the development of spiritual culture, political life and social system of China for the elongation of more than two thousand years. The bases of confucianism were laid in 6 v. of the B.C. next basic compositions [Konfutsiya] and then were developed by its students and by followers Maine -[tszy], [Syun]-[tszy] and other
Lunar calendar - traditional order of the numeration of time in China. As it appears from the earliest records, the bases of lunar calendar were known to the ancestors of Chinese already in the middle of 2 millenia B.C. the final formulation of the system of Chinese lunar calendar it relates to the epoch Of [khan] (1 v. B.C. - 2 V A.D.). In China, as in other agrarian civilizations of ancient peace, the formation of lunar calendar was with very intimately connected with the economic needs of agricultural population.
National holidays played large role in China still from the times of antiquity. Chinese for the duration of millenia used lunar calendar for the determination of the precise dates of their national holidays. And in spite of that which after the proclamation of the People's Republic of China was decided to introduce the Gregorian solar calendar, accepted and utilized today in the entire world, the national holidays of China as before are based on the data of lunar calendar.
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