At the beginning XIII of century from the depths of Asia in avalanche gushed out the troops of cruel Tatar- Mongolian nomads, which ruined China, Near East and Europe. Under the leadership Of [chingiskhana] they created the largest in the world empire.
Even at the dawn of history the settled peoples of old world, which were being occupied in essence by agriculture, lived in the fear before the tribes with completely different way of life. These were the tribes of cattle-breeder- nomads, who outdistanced their herds from one pasture to another in proportion to the change of the seasons. Their native land were the earth to the north from the territory of the modern Mongolia, where they conducted the way of life typical for the cattle-breeders, separating sheep, goats and horses, because of which was obtained entire necessary for the life: food (meat, cheese and cottage cheese), clothing (fur and skins), koumiss (wandered horse milk), which was being used as the strong beverage, and the felt, manufactured from the fur, with which was covered the body of the movable dwelling of Mongolians, yourta. They lived by clans and tribes. In each tribe was the leader, or the khan, selected tribal [znatyu].
Situation changed with the accession to power Of [temudzhina], another boy of lost its father - the leader of tribe. After traversing heavy tests in the youth, [Temudzhin] grew by the cruel and inflexible person, who gradually removed all his rivals, combined Tatar- Mongolian tribes under his individual administration and created the fanatically devoted to it and disciplined army. It they in 1206 proclaimed [Chingiskhanom], i.e. “world ruler”.
By fire and by the sword
For the subsequent twenty years Of [chingiskhan] it made several, in order to justify its name. It conquered North China, took and ransacked its capital Peking. Steppe states in the West were subjugated and connected to the rapidly growing Tatar- Mongolian empire. In the march through the Caucasian mountains left the reconnaissance expedition, which as a result broke the army of Russia and other troops, sent against it. After this, [Chingiskhan] conducted its most brilliant operation. Tatar Mongols ruined famous cities Bukhara and Samarkand, and in the course of the subsequent campaigns they completely liquidated sultanate, on their way after cutting out several large cities, and they freed to themselves road into the depth of Hindustan peninsula, to the Indus itself. The countries, seized by Tatar Mongols, came into such decline, that in some peoples left the centuries for the restoration of their economy.
Heritage Of [chingiskhana]
In 1224 [Chingiskhan] was forced to return from India for the suppression of uprising to Mongolia, and in 1227 its death interrupted its achievements. Besides the enormous empire, it left to its successors digest and administrative and managerial apparatus, which it formed from the loyal to itself people, which belonged to the different races and the religions. Thus it placed the traditions, because of which the supremacy of Tatar Mongols was preserved to the centuries. In addition to this, it created communications on the basis of the horse posts, located on the specific distance from each other.
The successor Of [chingiskhana], his son Of [ogday], even more greatly enlarged empire. He established in the Mongolia the capital, [Karakorum], completed the subjugation of North China and was opened way into the depth of Europe, after taking Russian principalities and after breaking Polish, German and Hungarian armies. Western Europe from the achievement saved only sudden death [Ogdaya], after which the Tatar Mongols stepped back.
This the continuance, during which the Mongolians did not have the great khan, followed, and, to the happiness for the West, in the final analysis arrived at the authority successor [Ogdaya], [Mangu] focused his attention on other regions. In 1258 brother To [mangu], To [khulagu] of [svergnul] the weakened caliphate of [abbasidov] ransacked Baghdad.
At this time territory in the Near East, where ruled Tatar Mongols, already reached its western limit after the rebuff to their attack in Syria, shown by Egyptian Mameluke. [Mangu] itself took South China, whose achievement after its death completed its brother and successor Of [kublaykhan].
By this time Tatar- Mongolian empire began to be decomposed into several large independent khanates. Remaining the great khan, [Kublaykhan] as before of rules by them, but the basic center of its authority moved to China, where it established emperor dynasty yuan, that reigned until 1368. To [khulagu] it established the powerful dynasty Of [ilkhan], to the period of administration of which is fallen the bloom of Persian culture. The number of other powerful Tatar- Mongolian states includes the great, or gold horde, which ruled in Russia (word “horde " it originally indicated only “the stand of nomads”), and the khanate in Central Asia, which at the end the fourteenth century left one additional undoubtedly very strong conqueror, Timur, or [Tamerlan], it is small that left after themselves, with exception of destruction improbable to its scales.
From the great khanates only gold horde existed to THE XV century; however, the descendant of Timur [Babur] established the dynasty of great [Mogolov] in India, which was being for long held in authority, and some smaller khanates played the specific role in the history to the very twentieth century.
Connections of the West with the east
In spite of all calamities, brought by Tatar Mongols, their history had positive value, especially for Europe. Existence of the enormous, well organized Eurasian empire, on which it was safe to travel, considerably improved the connections of the West with the east. Thus, the most famous of all medieval travellers, Marco [Polo], in the second-half XIII of century in the course of its journeys knew how to traverse Tatar- Mongolian territories and to be arranged to the service to [Kublaykhanu]. Through Marco [Polo] and other travellers goods and the inventions, which subsequently played enormous role in the development of European civilization, for example, powder and printing press, invented by Chinese, burn on the West.
With the disintegration of Tatar- Mongolian empire and the West again send contacts between the east to the loss. Trade was properly renewed only in THE XV century, when European navigators opened new seaway to the east.
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