Семь чудес света

Древние сооружения

Афинский Акрополь Архитектура ацтеков Монастыри Метеоры Пещерные города Пещеры Эллора Пизанская башня Пирамиды майя Статуи острова Пасха Стоунхендж Храм Тодайдзи Наш мир Мегалитические сооружения Загадка мегалитов Рисунки пустыни Наска Tiahuanaco (Тиауанако) Вавилонские зиккураты Китайские пирамиды Патомский кратер
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Statues of island Easter

Island of Easter ([Rapanui]) (Pascua, Rapa Of nui), volcanic island in the eastern part of Pacific Ocean of 165,5 square kilometers. Height to 539 meters. Chile belongs. Population of approximately 2 thousand people. Fishing. Sheep breeding. Remainders of the [ischeznuvshey] culture of Polynesians (rock sculpture, the plates, covered with characters). The administrative center ch Of [khanga]-[Roa]. It is opened by Netherlands seafarer i. [Roggevenom] into 1772 during the day of Easter. They indicate that the island of Easter one of the most secluded corners of peace. This tiny islet of volcanic origin by the size not more than 24 kilometers, forgotten in the Pacific Ocean expanses for thousands of miles from the nearest human civilization. Statues of island Easter It is found 3600 km west of the Chilean city of Valparaiso. Everything, which is connected with the island, is wrapped by secret. From where profits are its first inhabitants? How they did generally reveal this islet? How why did sculpture more than 600 gigantic rock statues?

The first Europeans, who stepped to the island on Easter Sunday of 1772, were the [niderlanskie] seamen, who gave to island name. They revealed that the representatives of three different races peacefully coexist on the island. There were here black, redskin and finally completely white people. They conducted is very affably and friendly. The most captivating and most mysterious discovery on the island of Easter were the nevertheless gigantic rock statues, named by the local residents of [moai]. Many of them reach in the height from 4 to 10 meters and they weigh to 20 tons. Separate have even larger sizes, their weight exceeds 90 tons. They very large heads with the heavy coming out chin, long ears and entirely do not have feet. In some on the heads of cap from the red stone (they assume that these are leaders, [obozhestvlennye] after their death). Local residents worshipped to the deity, whom they called Poppy- poppy. Were discovered wooden tables with those cut out by characters. Europeans burnt majorities of them, but few nevertheless miraculously were preserved. These tables, called [rongo]-[rongo], [ispeshchryalis] by characters first from left to right, and then in the reverse order from right to left. However, to decipher the signs traced on them it was impossible until now. Historical records about the island of Easter it was not conducted, and with the change of generations oral stories about the traditions and the culture of islanders became ever more and more diffuse. Aborigines described to captain Cook that were replaced 22 generations since leader To [khotu] Of [matua] it brought their ancestors to this island, but they could not say from where. However, from where did occur the inhabitants of polynesia? What peoples did populate the countless islands, which were stretched on the boundless spaces of Pacific Ocean far from the populated continents? The riddle of the origin of Polynesians gave birth to many different hypotheses. They assumed that the population of polynesia occurs from India, from Egypt, from the Caucasus, from Scandinavia and even from Atlantis.

Some scientists defended the American origin of Polynesians. Stepped pyramids and monoliths, huge statues of the island of Easter and [Markizskie] islands surprisingly resembled the same pyramids and sculptures, left in the mountains of the Pacific coast by the ancient inhabitants of Peru. This hypothesis enticed young Norwegian ethnographer [Tura] Hyerdahl. Studying legends and myths of Polynesians, Hyerdahl established that all poetic legends of the inhabitants of islands were dedicated to god ticks - to son of the sun, who there is no time swam up through the ocean from the mountainous country in the east. Hyerdahl studied the study of the ancient culture of South America. Peruvian legends spoke about the people of the white gods of those arrived from somewhere from the north. They created in the mountains enormous rock statues. Subsequently, after defeat in the battle with Incas in [Titikaka] lake, this people in chapter with its leader KON- ticks (which indicates “Sun- ticks”) without leaving a trace disappeared. KON- ticks it took away its people to the West through the ocean. Legends thus said… Hyerdahl dealt with excavations in British Columbia, were studied figures on the stones in the Polynesian style, when German fascists [vtorglis] into Norway. From the solar shores of Pacific Ocean the scientist-patriot left in the Transarctic. He became soldier- parachutist, [uchavstvoval] in combat on the sea mains, which lead into Murmansk, and only after Norway was freed, stage Hyerdahl again returned to its studies. Hyerdahl wrote the large scientific labor, which proves the American origin of Polynesians, but in the scientific peace no one turned attention to his work. It is possible whether serious to speak about the migration of Indians to The [polenezie] islands, if they had available no vessels, except primitive rafts! [Eto] was main objection. And Hyerdahl made the unexpected decision: he itself will prove that in the Peruvian to raft it is possible to cross Pacific Ocean.

The crew of extraordinary vessel was selected rapidly. First was called engineer Herman [Vattsinger]. To the call of Hyerdahl responded the friend of his childhood the artist Of [erik] Of [khesselberg] and his comrades on the weapon the whip Of [khaugland] and [Tursteyn] To [raabyu]. Five young Norwegians solidly believed in the success of expedition. Danger did not frighten them. During the war Of [tursteyn] and whip repeatedly they descended by parachute with the radio receiver into the rear of enemy, but [Erik] in the past seaman - knew how to handle sextant not worse than with the palette and the brush. The sixth participant in the expedition became Swedish ethnographer [Bengt] [Danielsson]. Already very preparation of expedition required considerable courage, resoluteness and endurance from its [uchastinkov]. Aircraft delivered them in Quito - the capital Of [ekvadora], from where they left for the jungle for the searches for [balzovykh] trees. Neither poisonous snakes and scorpions nor danger of the attack of wild Indians - hunters after the skulls nor floods of tropical rivers stopped travellers. In are more frequent than the virgin the scaffolding Hyerdahl and his friends found that the fact that they searched for.

And here precious logs are delivered with the flow of the rivers Of [palenkue] and Rio [Guayans] into the port Of [guayakil], and from there into the starting point of expedition - Lima. Here in Callao bay, was built raft - precise copy of ancient Peruvian vessels. In [otlichae] from the Indian seafarers participants in the expedition did take with themselves radio station, but how could it help travellers, forgotten in the boundless spaces of Pacific Ocean, on the ten-meter pay, far from the seaways? On April 28, 1947 many people were assembled in the port of Callao in order to carry out courageous researchers. It is necessary to say that almost no one believed in the success of expedition. They foretold the unavoidable loss to it. But young travellers imperturbable made their matter. Wind filled square sail with the image of bearded face KON- ticks - legendary seafarer, who, by hypothesis Hyerdahl, opened polynesia of approximately 500 years A.D. his name they appropriated to uncommon vessel. And here “KON- ticks” it is brought out on the tug into the open sea. Tailwind caught raft, and the soon toothed mountains of Peru were hidden behind the cloud bank. Now already could not be turned conversely. Trade wind chased raft in the northwest. Toward the evening the ocean was covered with [revushchemi] by waves. “The KON- ticks” easily it climbed to the water mountains, and, even if wave crests attacked the raft, water immediately departed in the slot between the logs as through the teeth of fork.

The first several days crew furiously fought with the element. Control of sail and by steering oar required the most great stress of forces, but travellers were convinced of the excellent seaworthiness of raft. Week is past. Waves ceased, and ocean generously revealed its secrets before the daring researchers. It did not pass day so that the inhabitants of ocean depths would not visit them. Sardines and gold mackerel, frisky dolphins and fatty tunnies appeared in the raft itself. The flocks of flying fishes flew overhead, and many of them fell on the dam A somehow at night wave it threw directly into the cabin the thinnest snake fish, which to previously no one it was necessary to see living. Only skeletons of similar fishes rarely revealed on American coast. At night water around the raft boiled by the [fosforetsiruyushchimi] sparklets. Sometimes whose- that the round luminous eyes rose from the sea abyss, drawn by the dim light of lamp. Possibly, these were the large squids, that in large quantities are conducted in these waters. They caused numerous fears, but none of them attempted to climb on the dam stage Hyerdahl and his friends established that the young of squids, escaping from the pursuit, jump out from the water and fly tens of meters, planning in air. On this suspected at that moment not one zoologist. On May 24 to the raft swam up the monster of tropical waters - [dvadtsatimetrovaya] whale shark - the largest fish in the world, known during our days. Usual sharks fell daily. Sometimes they simply swarmed around the raft. Gradually seafarers became accustomed to them and even they learned to take out these terrible predators to the deck. Once raft stumbled on the entire herd of whales. The sea giants several hours peacefully sported around the raft, and then they were hidden in the abysses of ocean.

The pages of the ship journal “KON- ticks” [ispeshchryalis] by records about the encounters with the mysterious sea essences, not known, until now. Gigantic the slope, which lay as underwater cliff, on the very surface of ocean, the luminous, twined fishes and many other inhabitants of ocean, noted from the raft, never thus far were observed by scientists at this close distance. Similar encounters were not always safe. In order to control the life of the inhabitants of depths, [Erik] Of [khesselberg] it contrived from the bamboo “diving basket”. In it was possible in the calm weather to remain under water, until respiration was sufficient. [Etot] simple projectile made it possible to make many interesting observations. Dispatch weeks. They were filled with the tireless labor. Each of the travellers fulfilled their duties. The former military radio operators whip and [Tursteyn] used entire their wide experience in order to run the radio equipment, frequently flooded. They were conveyed by entire days with their batteries and soldering irons, and at night they sent into ether of weather report, which were very valuable for the meteorological stations of Europe and America. [Erik] bore the responsibilities of navigator and, furthermore sketchings made. Stage brought in observations into the ship periodical, caught fish and plankton, were produced filmings. [Bengt] fulfilled duties of housekeeper and besides it managed to read the scientific books. Herman conducted meteorological and hydrological observations. And each on four hours in a 24 hour period stood on watch in control.

On forty fifth day of floating the travellers were located exactly on halfway to their purpose - by 108 degree of western length. More than two thousand miles separated them from the [ezhnie] America coasts, but it was in front yet few tests. Already in the Polynesian waters to the raft one after another were brought down three gigantic waves, obviously, caused by underwater [zemlyatryaseniyami]. “KON- ticks” withstood these impacts. But two days later were played the violent storm, which was being continued several days. But travellers already learned to fight with the waves. Friendly soldering helped them in the most difficult, sometimes tragic circumstances. When Herman proved to be outboard and flow took away from it raft increasingly further and it is further, whip, risking by life, rushed into the waves and saved comrade. Six young scientists never lost confidence in the success of its courageous enterprise. Merriment was their constant satellite. Guitar, amusing joke, inexhaustible sense of humour helped them in the unceasing bitter struggle with the element. And people proved to be [selnee] of ocean. On July 30 at the horizon seemed [zemlya].[Eto] was island [Pukapuka] - extreme point of the archipelago of Tuamotu. Flow did not allow raft to approach the island. Then seemed island [Angatau], but also could not be adhered to it. Ninety seventh day of journey went. Task was executed. People on to raft crossed Pacific Ocean and reached the islands of polynesia. Remained one additional testing - to burst open through the barrier of the coral reefs, against which, probably [razbiros] numerous ships. Most annoying would be perish in the very end of the way. But also here six travellers appeared the same force of spirit, organization and fearlessness, who helped them throughout unprecedented floating.

On August 7 “KON- ticks” was rejected by the surf to the coral reef, on the very shore of the tiny, uninhabited, been overgrown with palms islet [Raroia]. [Eto] there was the first solid earth, to which stepped six seafarers. After several days here swam up on their pirogues the islanders -[poleniziytsy]. They showed very emotional reception travellers. But still after several days after the crew “KON- ticks” is alien from Tahiti island French schooner “Tamara”. This remarkable expedition thus ended. Now stage could design Hyerdahl for the attention of scientific peace. They printed its work. In it many interesting proofs of the historical connection of polynesia with South America are conducted. And nevertheless, as recognizes author himself, by its journey it proved only high seaworthiness of [balzovykh] rafts. The defenders of the hypothesis of the Asian origin of Polynesians continue to adhere to their point of view. Thus, a question about the origin of Polynesians as before remains open. However, the journey of the stage of Hyerdahl and his friends convincingly proved that the ancient Peruvians could fall on the islands of polynesia. 4300 nautical miles (about 8000 km) swam on to raft of nine logs of fucoids Hyerdahl and his friends. This distance twice exceeds that way, which passed Columbus on his Caravelles during the first journey to the West Indies. And regardless of the fact, as will solve future researchers a question about the origin of Polynesians, journey to “the KON- ticks” will remain in the history Xx- GO of century an example of the selfless scientific exploit.


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