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Древние сооружения

Афинский Акрополь Архитектура ацтеков Монастыри Метеоры Пещерные города Пещеры Эллора Пизанская башня Пирамиды майя Статуи острова Пасха Стоунхендж Храм Тодайдзи Наш мир Мегалитические сооружения Загадка мегалитов Рисунки пустыни Наска Tiahuanaco (Тиауанако) Вавилонские зиккураты Китайские пирамиды Патомский кратер

Pyramids of [mayya]

Archaeologists several took some pains themselves in those regions of Mexico, belize, honduras and Guatemala, where once arose the civilization of [mayya]. The culture of [mayya] reached the highest bloom in ViII the century: in those times in Yucatan and near it dwelled not less than five million people, but possibly, and it is more three or four times. To the arrival of Spaniards in the region it remained, even according to the most optimistic estimations, not more than five hundred thousands. The number of inhabitants of the South lowlands of Yucatan was reduced almost one hundred! But how to explain the mass extinction of people enormous on the measures of that time?

Pyramids of [mayya]

Ancient [mayya], as inhabitants salt water -[Nui], ruined scaffolding and wasted soil. It did not transport by them, also, with the climate - the droughts frequently occurred in the peninsula. The Indians of [mayya] as islanders salt water -[Nui], could not in time change strategy of behavior before the moved catastrophe.

[Mayya] canned much, this undoubtedly. They followed the motion of celestial bodies and on the basis of these knowledge created unique calendar, they built cities and temples, covering their walls with splendid frescoes. But their agriculture was extremely primitive. [Mayya] had neither draft nor meat cattle, but from the domestic poultry - only dogs, the turkeys, the ducks and the bees. [Mayyaskie] peasants, who composed the absolute majority of population, fed in essence by one corn, and this is the sufficiently poor source of nutrients. In proportion to an increase in the number of inhabitants it was necessary to enlarge the area of sowings due to the new terraces on the mountain slopes and on the spot brought scaffolding. This entailed exhaustion and weathering of soils, as a result of which they fell harvests. To the centenary space between 810 and 910 for years it was necessary twenty dry seasons, including the catastrophic drought of 900 years. These intrigues of nature not only inflicted the strongest loss to agriculture, but also devastated aqueous reserves. Natural calamities considerably blew up the faith in the omnipotence of the priest- monarchs, who in exchange for submissiveness and payment of taxes were obligated were to ensure the gods yielded by favor. The numerous [mayyaskie] princelings, who never were characterized by pacifism, began to even more desperate battle with each other in the attempt to solve his own problems due to the neighbor. End is known: Moore, weakening power of the state, the [mezhplemennye] wars, the become deserted cities and the disappearance of the bright culture - on the whole, collapse with the ecological basis in the pure form.

Is it possible it was to avoid this sad outcome? In principle, yes - and to that there is an example. About six hundred years ago the sovereigns of the empire of Incas knew how to examine the danger, connected with the disappearance of scaffolding. On their order the Indians reduced cuttings down in the Andes and approached strengthening of mountain slopes and fitting the young trees. This helped to brake the erosion of soil, to stop the impoverishment of peasant farms and to avoid hunger. And although in the middle XVI of century the empire of Incas ended its existence, this occurred by no means because of the ecologically caused collapse.

Why the Indians of [mayya] in time did not attend to by the rescuing of their nature? To this it is possible to find many plausible explanations, but main reason is visible immediately. The empire of Incas was the centralized state, subordinated to the authority of absolute monarch. Did not have [mayya] never of this unity, their earth was divided between the small state- cities, which warred with each other. Under similar conditions united nature-conservation policy (if we use ourselves contemporary terminology) was impossible. So it came out that the civilization of [mayya] ruined itself by its own hands, moreover long before the appearance of European colonizers.


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