Architecture of Aztecs, Aztecs инки майя
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Architecture of [atstekov]

At night on February 21, 1978. in the very center of Mexico City, at the angle of the streets of Guatemala and Argentina, the working urban companies of power supply produced earthwork. After opening thick concrete coating and [proniknuv] into ground to two meters, they suddenly stumbled on the layer of stone. After cleaning the surface of stone from the [nalipshey] clay, workers revealed on it relief image and decided to put off work until the morning. For the identification of finding on the telephone they urgently caused the group of archaeologists from the national institute of anthropology and history. Architecture of [atstekov] On February 23 it was established that the finding is the part of the monolith with the profile image of human face and head adornments.

Until February 27 under the management of archaeologist” continued work on the extraction of the finding, which was proven to be the enormous rock disk with a diameter of 3,25 m. scientists they on its surface saw the engraved exposed and dismembered female figure without the head. In the opinion historians, this was the goddess of the Moon [Koyolshauki], the sister of the [atstekskogo] god of war and sun Of [uitsilopochtli], killed and quartered on the legend, her brother on the hill Of [kontepek].

So the unexpected finding marked the beginning of large excavations of the great temple of [atstekov] in [Tenochtitlane]…

Of [atsteki] settled on the small islands of lake of approximately 1325 g. first they burn under the authority ruler [Aykapopalko], from which they could be freed only in 1425.

Subsequently martial [atsteki] took the extensive earth on entire [Mezoamerike]. Their capital Of [tenochtitlan] of [atsteki] they built by beautiful rock houses, by palaces and by temples. Islands they connected between themselves and by continent dams. The city large and small channels intersected. This it was present “Indian Venice” - the clearly planned city on the piles. In its central part was located wide area with 46- meter pyramid - the great temple Of [tenochtitlana] in the honor of the god Of [uitsilopochtli] and many smaller buildings - chapels, sanctuaries and residences of the entire army of priests.

Immense building, content of priestly class, army and house of supreme ruler required enormous means. It is not surprising that [atsteki] waged infinite wars with the adjacent tribes, robbed them and, which was most scandalous, they destroyed all prisoners

The cruelty of [atstekov] with respect to those conquered did not know boundaries. Thousands of human offerings were accomplished on the altars of great temple. In someone the priests cut out the quivering hearts by ritual knives, they shot someone from the bows, after tying to the ritual posts, they slowly fried some on the fire, and then, already in half-dead, pulled out hearts.

Once, taking vengeance for these atrocities, the men of tribe [ueshotdin]- Ci secretly penetrated in the city and burnt the temple of the goddess Of [tonattsin]. [Atsteki] answered by current military march. With the arrival of Spaniards almost all tribes composed the coalition, which supported cortes, and in 1521. [atsteki] were finally destroyed, white conquerors destroyed [Tenochtitlan], and together with it and great temple.

In the sign of the final subjugation of [atstekov] on the spot of their pyramids and temples, areas and credences it was they will erect the Spanish, more accurate, colonial city of Mexico City - capital of modern Mexico. The remainders Of [tenochtitlana] remained under the foundations of Catholic cathedrals, palaces to [znati], the public buildings of the vice- kingdom of Mexico. The excavations of great temple continued to the end 1982 g. in the command with the archaeologists they worked restorers, biologists, chemists, geologists and other specialists in the earliest history. After almost five-year continuous labor it was possible to bring the first sums. As it was explained, the main facade of temple was inverted to the West. It stood on the wide platform, which was being rested upon the stylobate with two stairs, which led to the sanctuaries of the god of the war Of [uitsilopochtli] from the south side of temple and god of rain and fertility Of [tlaloka] - from north. Before the entrance in the sanctuary Of [uitsilopochtli] lies sacrificial stone, while before the sanctuary Of [tlaloka] the painted figure Of [chakmoola], godly messenger, collector of offerings. The base of temple from four sides is decorated with censers and snake heads. Among other adornments - rock frogs, jaguars and enormous sea shells.

During the five-year excavations were found a total of about seven thousand objects approximately of 100 places of offerings. Archaeologists themselves note that the arrangement of objects in the places of offerings not by chance, it corresponds to the symbolism unsolved another. In other words, these objects and their arrangement, is more precise orientation along the sides of light, they have their language. For example, two offerings, found one in the middle south, another - northern side, contained the identical collections of the objects: below packed in the direction from the north to the south of shell, above them - crocodiles, on top snake head, in the base of great temple - the statuette of the sitting deity, as they assume, the god of the fire Of [shiutekutli], which guards the center of universe. To the right of these figurines - sea coral, and to the left - clay vessel with the image Of [tlaloka].

Among the findings, made in the great temple, many different masks and figurines, the alabaster heads of deer and statuette of the sitting idols, sea shells, fish bones, the head of fish- saw, corals, crocodiles and jaguars. The findings, which relate to the cult of the god of the war Of [uitsilopochtli], are censers with the reliefs in the form of skulls and ritual knives of [tekiatl], decorated with eyes and teeth, made from the sea shells. The monumental rock relief of the goddess Of [koyolypauki] lay, as it was explained, in the foot of the sanctuary of the god of war, and they next found small altar with two rock frogs from the sides.

It is possible only to represent, how savagely severe it was the religion of [atstekov], even if their goddess proved to be that quartered by her brother.

Many contemporary Mexican astrologers assume that “the release” Of [koyolshauki] implies negative consequences for prosperity of the country, and they attempt to find the methods of fight with its energy field…

The great temple Of [tenochtitlana], which now stands on the bottom of the enormous foundation area, dug out around it, before was raised among the extensive [ogorozhennoy] territory, where were located other temples, the chamber of soldiers, priestly school and stadium for the ritual game into the ball. The inventive religious rituals included festivals, posts, [pesnopeniya], dances, [voskurenie] of fragrancies and natural rubber, and also dramatic [deystva] with the human offerings. The latter composed the important part of the [atstekskikh] religious rites and practiced, as they assume, in order to supply gods with the energy and the fact to postpone the inevitable loss of mankind. Offerings, counted [atsteki], they were necessary for maintaining the steady life cycle. The human blood fed the sun, caused rains and ensured terrestrial existence of people.

Some forms of offerings were limited to bloodlettings by means of the shafts of the plant of [maguey], but more frequent priests killed victim, ripping by it by knife breast and pulling out heart. With some rites into the victim they brought the elected official, to whom fell out the honor to personify by itself deity, with others they killed many prisoners.

According to [atstekskoy] mythology, the universe was divided into thirteen skies and nine infernal peaces. The created peace passed four epochs of development, each of which was completed by the loss of mankind: the first - from the jaguars, the second - from the hurricanes, the third. - from the world fire, the fourth - from the flood. The contemporary epoch of the fifth sun, according to the ideas of [atstekov], must be completed by terrible earthquakes.



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