The temples in the honor of the deity- patrons of this city usually were built on the acropolis. Acropolis in Athens is most famous.
Its buildings of [izyskanny] on the proportions and are harmoniously connected with the view. This ensemble, created under the general management Of [fidiya], consists of the main entrance Of [propiley] (437-432 B.C.,
architect [Mnesikl]), temple Athens nick (449-420 B.C., architect [Kallikrat]), the main thing the temple of acropolis and Athens the Parthenon (447-438 B.C., architects [Iktin] [Kallikrat]), the temple Of [erekhteyon] (421-406 B.C.).
ACROPOLIS in Athens, fastened part of ancient Athens, where were located the main sacred things of city, were famous by their cult buildings of classical period.
History of the creation
Athenian acropolis, which is 156- meter rocky hill with the gently sloping apex ([ok]. of 300 m the length and 170 m into the width), place of the earliest settlement in Attica. In the [mikenskiy] period (15-13 substances B.C.) it was the fastened tsarist residence. Large building B.C. on the acropolis was conducted in 7-6 substances. During tyrant [Pisistrate]'s lifetime (560-527) on the spot tsarist palace was built the temple of goddess Athens [Gekatompedon] (i.e. temple with length into one hundred steps; the fragments of the sculptures of pediments were preserved, was revealed foundation). In 480 during the Greco- Persian wars the temples of acropolis were destroyed by Persians. The inhabitants of Athens gave oath to restore sacred things only after driving the enemy out from [Ellady].
In 447 on the initiative Pericles on the acropolis began new building; management of all works was charged to famous sculptor [Fidi], who was, apparently, and the author of the artistic program, which became the basis of entire complex, his architectural and sculptural appearance.
[Propilei] and temple the nick Of [apteros]
The sacred road, along which from [agory] to the temple of goddess- patroness moved during the main holiday of great with [panafiney] the procession of Athenians, leads to [Propileyam], which have 5 passages, also, in the antiquity flanked by two horse statues Of [dioskurov]. In the leftist, who appears their wing, was arranged the picture gallery (meeting of the pictures -[pinak], brought into the gift to goddess to Athena), in by right was located the depository of the manuscripts and accomodation for the doorkeeper and the watchmen. [Propiley] on [pirgose] (protrusion fastened cliff) to the right of stands the small, light and elegant temple of ionic warrant, blessed Athena- nick, known as temple nick [Apteros] (wingless victory; 443-420, architect [Kallikrat]).
After participants in the procession passed [Propilei] and they entered to the sacred territory, the panorama of the center section of the complex was opened before them. First and foremost, only it is more left than the road, was raised colossal bronze statue Athens [Promakhos] ([Voitelnitsy]), poured [Fidiem]. After it is far visible was visible [Erekhteyon] (architect it was unknown), temple Athens and the Poseidon on the spot the dispute of these gods for the possession Attica. Temple has asymmetric plan unique in the Greek architecture; its three porticoes are located on the different levels: from the west side the portico, which leads into the temple Athens the polyad (urban), from north the entrance in the sanctuary of the Poseidon -[Erekhteya], the southern wall of temple has the famous portico of caryatids; frieze with the additional white figures (it was not preserved) girded entire building. In [Erekhteyone], oldest sanctuary of Athens, was located sacred [ksoan] Athens (wooden statue), on the legend fallen from the sky, the altars of Hephaestus and hero of ashlar, legendary Athenian tsar [Kekrop]'s grave, from the West adjoined the sanctuary of the attic goddess of dew Of [pandrosy]. In the court
[Erekhteyona] is tall the sacred olive, presented to city by Athena, beat the salt source, which carved the Poseidon by its trident.
By the ease of forms, special by the refinement of decorative finishing and by the complicatedness of the composition of small according to the sizes [Erekhteyon] it contrasts with strict and by the majestic, it is emphasized monumental Parthenon (temple of Athens- virgin; 69,5 m the length and 30,9 m into the width, the height of columns is 10,5 m; 447 it is blessed into 438; architect [Iktin] with the participation Of [kallikrata]), by represented by itself [doricheskiy] peripteros. Building is received from The [propiley] in three fourth spectators they saw not one of its facades, but entire volume of construction, was obtained idea about its appearance as a whole and, before seeing main, eastern facade, it had to go around temple outside.
In the temple itself, in [naose], stood the [khrisoelefantinnaya] statue Athens [Parfenos] (virgin) of the work Of [fidiya], in [opistodome] stored the sacred money of goddess and the treasury of Athenian sea union. In the pediments were arranged the sculptural groups, which depicted most significant in the stump Athens event its generation and dispute with the marine god with the Poseidon for the possession by Attica. Reliefs metope on the perimeter of building depicted the scenes of mythological battles. Architectural components, sculpture and reliefs were vividly painted. Plan and [ordernoe] solution of the Parthenon also differ from traditional in terms of a number of the special features: before [naosom] there was the hall maidenly hall (Parthenon, which gave name to entire temple), along the wall of [naosa] went ionic frieze with the image Of [panafineyskogo] procession.
Before the Parthenon, on the right side from The [propiley], were arranged also sanctuaries Of [artemidy] Of [bravronii] and Athens [Ergany] (handicraft), the depository of weapon and sacred armors Of [khalkoteka] (450). The open area of acropolis occupied numerous altars and gifts to the gods of statue, [stely].
The North Western slope of acropolis adjoined the temple and theater Of [dionisa] (6 v. is B.C. rebuilt into 326), Odeon Pericles (covered round building for the musical contests) (the 2nd sex. 5 v. B.C.), the theater Of [geroda] Attica (2 v. A.D.), the sanctuary Of [asklepiya], costing (portico) [Evmena].
Ensemble of the acropolis
Acropolis is raised above all by Athens, its silhouette forms the silhouette of city. The Parthenon in the antiquity being risen above the hill could be seen from any end of Attica and even from the islands Of [salamin] and [Egina]; to the swimming up to the coast seafarers was already from a distance visible the luster of spear and helmet Athens -[Voitelnitsy]. In the antiquity the sanctuary was known not only as famous cult center, but also as the monument of great skill, which confirms the glory of Athens as “the school Of [ellady]” and of the most excellent city. The thought-out composition of entire ensemble, the wonderfully obtained general proportions, the flexible combination of different warrants, the finest modelling of architectural components and their extraordinarily precise figure, close interrelation of architecture and sculptural decoration make the construction of acropolis with the highest reaching of Ancient Greek architecture and one of the most salient monuments of world skill.
Acropolis in the subsequent epochs
In 5 v. the Parthenon became the church of Mother of God, statue Athens [Parfenos] was transported into Constantinople. After the achievement of Greece by Turks (in 15 v.) temple they converted into the mosque, to which attached the minarets, then into the arsenal; [Erekhteyon] became the harem of Turkish pasha, temple the nick Of [apteros] was dismantled, of its blocks folded the wall of bastion. In 1687 after the entry of nucleus from the Venetian ship the explosion destroyed almost entire center section of the temple of Athens- virgin, with the unsuccessful attempt of the Venetians to remove the sculptures of the Parthenon several statues were broken. At the beginning 19 v. the Englishman lord [Elgin] broke in a number metope, tens of meters of frieze and almost all preserved sculptures of the pediments of the Parthenon, caryatid from the portico Of [erekhteyona].
After the proclamation of the independence of Greece in the course of restoration works (in essence in KON. 19 v.) as far as possible was restored the ancient appearance of the acropolis: entire late building in its territory is liquidated, is anew lined temple the nick Of [apteros] and the like reliefs and the sculptures of the temples of acropolis are located in the British museum (London), in [Luvre] (Paris) and museum of acropolis. The sculptures remained under the open sky are substituted at present with copies.
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